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Chemicals in Oil and Gas Operations

Peer-reviewed Papers

Listed below are references to peer-reviewed scientific articles related to unconventional oil and gas production. Peer-reviewed articles have been reviewed by experts in the field before being accepted for publication. The process of peer-review is used by scientific journals to validate research and ensure that high scientific standards are met.

Most articles included on this page were chosen for their relevance to potential health impacts from exposure to oil and gas related chemicals. The articles are categorized by their primary focus and clicking in the box on the right will take you to the category of interest. Each section is arranged chronologically with the most recently published articles listed at the top.

Air

Elliott EG, Trinh P, Ma X, Leaderer BP, Ward MH, Deziel NC. 2017. Unconventional oil and gas development and risk of childhood leukemia: Assessing the evidence. Sci Total Environ 576:138-147, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.072.

Roohani YH, Roy AA, Heo J, Robinson AL, Adams PJ. 2017. Impact of natural gas development in the Marcellus and Utica Shales on regional ozone and fine particulate matter levels. Atmos Environ doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.01.001.

Hildenbrand ZL, Mach PM, McBride EM, Dorreyatim MN, Taylor JT, Carlton Jr DD, Meik JM, Fontenot BE, Wright KC, Schug KA, et al. 2016. Point source attribution of ambient contamination events near unconventional oil and gas development. Sci Total Environ 573:382-388, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.118.

Laurenzi IJ, Bergerson JA, Motazedi K. 2016. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and freshwater consumption associated with Bakken tight oil. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113(48):E7672-E7680, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1607475113.

Kang M, Christian S, Celia MA, Mauzerall DL, Bill M, Miller AR, Chen Y, Conrad ME, Darrah TH, Jackson RB. 2016. Identification and characterization of high methane-emitting abandoned oil and gas wells. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113(48):13636-13641, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1605913113.

Brandt AR, Heath GA, Cooley D. 2016. Methane leaks from natural gas systems follow extreme distributions. Environ Sci Technol 50(22):12512-12520, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b04303.

Schwietzke S, Sherwood OA, Bruhwiler LMP, Miller JB, Etiope G, Dlugokencky EJ, Michel SE, Arling VA, Vaughn BH, White JWC, et al. 2016. Upward revision of global fossil fuel methane emissions based on isotope database. Nature 538(7623):88-91, doi: 10.1038/nature19797.

Chang C-Y, Faust E, Hou X, Lee P, Kim HC, Hedquist BC, Liao K-J. 2016. Investigating ambient ozone formation regimes in neighboring cities of shale plays in the Northeast United States using photochemical modeling and satellite retrievals. Atmos Environ 142:152-170, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.058.

Halliday HS, Thompson AM, Wisthaler A, Blake DR, Hornbrook RS, Mikoviny T, Müller M, Eichler P, Apel EC, Hills AJ. 2016. Atmospheric benzene observations from oil and gas production in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in July and August 2014. J Geophys Res-Atmos 121(18):11,055-011,074, doi: 10.1002/2016JD025327.

Evans JM, Helmig D. 2016. Investigation of the influence of transport from oil and natural gas regions on elevated ozone levels in the northern Colorado Front Range. J Air Waste Manag Assoc doi: 10.1080/10962247.2016.1226989.

Marrero JE, Townsend-Small A, Lyon DR, Tsai T, Meinardi S, Blake DR. 2016. Estimating emissions of toxic hydrocarbons from natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale region of northern Texas. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02827.

Frankenberg C, Thorpe AK, Thompson DR, Hulley G, Kort EA, Vance N, Borchardt J, Krings T, Gerilowski K, Sweeney C, et al. 2016. Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region. Proc Natl Acad Sci doi: 10.1073/pnas.1605617113.

Allen DT, Smith D, Torres VM, Saldaña FC. 2016. Carbon dioxide, methane and black carbon emissions from upstream oil and gas flaring in the United States. Curr Opin Chem Eng 13:119-123, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coche.2016.08.014.

McDuffie EE, Edwards PM, Gilman JB, Lerner BM, Dubé WP, Trainer M, Wolfe DE, Angevine WM, deGouw J, Williams EJ, et al. 2016. Influence of oil and gas emissions on summertime ozone in the Colorado Northern Front Range. J Geophys Res Atmos 121, doi: 10.1002/2016JD025265.

Paulik LB, Donald CE, Smith BW, Tidwell LG, Hobbie KA, Kincl L, Haynes EN, Anderson KA. 2016. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from natural gas extraction into air. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02762.

Helmig D, Rossabi S, Hueber J, Tans P, Montzka SA, Masarie K, Thoning K, Plass-Duelmer C, Claude A, Carpenter LJ, et al. 2016. Reversal of global atmospheric ethane and propane trends largely due to US oil and natural gas production. Nature Geosci 9(7):490-495, doi: 10.1038/ngeo2721.

Webb E, Hays J, Dyrszka L, Rodriguez B, Cox C, Huffling K, Bushkin-Bedient S. 2016. Potential hazards of air pollutant emissions from unconventional oil and natural gas operations on the respiratory health of children and infants. Rev Environ Health doi: 10.1515/reveh-2014-0070.

Maskrey JR, Insley AL, Hynds ES, Panko JM. 2016. Air monitoring of volatile organic compounds at relevant receptors during hydraulic fracturing operations in Washington County, Pennsylvania. Environ Monit Assess 188(7):1-12, doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5410-4.

Peischl J, Karion A, Sweeney C, Kort EA, Smith ML, Brandt AR, Yeskoo T, Aikin KC, Conley SA, Gvakharia A, et al. 2016. Quantifying atmospheric methane emissions from oil and natural gas production in the Bakken shale region of North Dakota. J Geophys Res Atmos doi: 10.1002/2015JD024631.

Rich AL, Orimoloye HT. 2016. Elevated atmospheric levels of benzene and benzene-related compounds from unconventional shale extraction and processing: human health concern for residential communities. Environ Health Insights 10:75-82, doi: 10.4137/EHI.S33314.

Kort EA, Smith ML, Murray LT, Gvakharia A, Brandt AR, Peischl J, Ryerson TB, Sweeney C, Travis K. 2016. Fugitive emissions from the Bakken Shale illustrate role of shale production in global ethane shift. Geophys Res Lett doi: 10.1002/2016GL068703.

Lyon DR, Alvarez RA, Zavala-Araiza D, Brandt AR, Jackson RB, Hamburg SP. 2016. Aerial surveys of elevated hydrocarbon emissions from oil and gas production sites. Environ Sci Technol 50(9):4877-4886.10.1021/acs.est.6b00705.

Schade GW RG. 2016. Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbon data from a monitoring station affected by oil and gas development in the Eagle Ford shale, Texas. Elem Sci Anth 4:000096, doi: 10.12952/journal.elementa.000096.

Rich AL, Patel JT, Al-Angari SS. 2016. Carbon disulfide (CS(2)) interference in glucose metabolism from unconventional oil and gas extraction and processing emissions. Environmental Health Insights 10:51-57, doi: 10.4137/EHI.S31906.

Townsend-Small A, Ferrara TW, Lyon DR, Fries AE, Lamb BK. 2016. Emissions of coalbed and natural gas methane from abandoned oil and gas wells in the United States. Geophys Res Lett 43(5):2283-2290, doi: 10.1002/2015GL067623.

Turner AJ, Jacob DJ, Benmergui J, Wofsy SC, Maasakkers JD, Butz A, Hasekamp O, Biraud SC, Dlugokencky E. 2016. A large increase in US methane emissions over the past decade inferred from satellite data and surface observations. Geophys Res Lett doi: 10.1002/2016GL067987.

Haley M, McCawley M, Epstein AC, Arrington B, Bjerke EF. 2016. Adequacy of current state setbacks for directional high-volume hydraulic fracturing in the Marcellus, Barnett, and Niobrara Shale Plays. Environ Health Perspect doi: 10.1289/ehp.1510547.

Prenni AJ, Day DE, Evanoski-Cole AR, Sive BC, Hecobian A, Zhou Y, Gebhart KA, Hand JL, Sullivan AP, Li Y, et al. 2016. Oil and gas impacts on air quality in federal lands in the Bakken region: an overview of the Bakken Air Quality Study and first results. Atmos Chem Phys 16(3):1401-1416, doi: 10.5194/acp-16-1401-2016.

Omara M, Sullivan MR, Li X, Subramanian R, Robinson AL, Presto AA. 2016. Methane emissions from conventional and unconventional natural gas production sites in the Marcellus Shale Basin. Environ Sci Technol 50(4):2099-2107, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b05503.

Eisele AP, Mukerjee S, Smith LA, Thoma ED, Whitaker D, Oliver K, Wu T, Colon M, Alston L, Cousett T, et al. 2016. Volatile organic compounds at two oil and natural gas production well pads in Colorado and Texas using passive samplers. J Air Waste Manag Assoc doi: 10.1080/10962247.2016.1141808.

Weyant CL, Shepson PB, Subramanian R, Cambaliza MOL, Heimburger A, McCabe D, Baum E, Stirm BH, Bond TC. 2016. Black carbon emissions from associated natural gas flaring. Environ Sci Technol 50(4):2075-2081, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04712.

Ahmadov R, McKeen S, Trainer M, Banta R, Brewer A, Brown S, Edwards PM, de Gouw JA, Frost GJ, Gilman J, et al. 2015. Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil- and natural gas-producing region of the western US. Atmos Chem Phys 15(1):411-429, doi: 10.5194/acp-15-411-2015.

Neemann EM, Crosman ET, Horel JD, Avey L. 2015. Simulations of a cold-air pool associated with elevated wintertime ozone in the Uintah Basin, Utah. Atmos Chem Phys 15(1):135-151, doi: 10.5194/acp-15-135-2015.

Zavala-Araiza D, Lyon DR, Alvarez RA, Davis KJ, Harriss R, Herndon SC, Karion A, Kort EA, Lamb BK, Lan X, et al. 2015. Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions. Proc Natl Acad Sci. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1522126112.

Emery BR, Montague DC, Field RA, Parish TR. 2015. Barrier wind formation in the Upper Green River Basin of Sublette County, Wyoming, and its relationship to elevated ozone distributions in winter. J Appl Meteor Climatol 54(12):2427-2442, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0103.1.

Lyman S, Tran T. 2015. Inversion structure and winter ozone distribution in the Uintah Basin, Utah, USA. Atmos Environ 123 Part A:156-165, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.10.067.

Walters K, Jacobson J, Kroening Z, Pierce C. 2015. PM 2.5 airborne particulates near frac sand operations. J Environ Health 78(4):8-12.

Rutter AP, Griffin RJ, Cevik BK, Shakya KM, Gong L, Kim S, Flynn JH, Lefer BL. 2015. Sources of air pollution in a region of oil and gas exploration downwind of a large city. Atmos Environ 120:89-99, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.08.073.

Schwarz JP, Holloway JS, Katich JM, McKeen S, Kort EA, Smith ML, Ryerson TB, Sweeney C, Peischl J. 2015. Black carbon emissions from the Bakken oil and gas development region. Environ Sci Technol Lett 2(10):281-285, doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00225.

Olaguer EP, Erickson M, Wijesinghe A, Neish B, Williams J, Colvin J. 2015. Updated methods for assessing the impacts of nearby gas drilling and production on neighborhood air quality and human health. J Air Waste Manag Assoc doi: 10.1080/10962247.2015.1083914.

Marchese AJ, Vaughn TL, Zimmerle DJ, Martinez DM, Williams LL, Robinson AL, Mitchell AL, Subramanian R, Tkacik DS, Roscioli JR, et al. 2015. Methane emissions from United States natural gas gathering and processing. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b02275.

Ahmadi M, John K. 2015. Statistical evaluation of the impact of shale gas activities on ozone pollution in North Texas. Sci Total Environ 536:457-467, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.114.

Lan X, Talbot R, Laine P, Torres A, Lefer B, Flynn J. 2015. Atmospheric mercury in the Barnett Shale Area, Texas: implications for emissions from oil and gas processing. Environ Sci Technol 49(17):10692-10700, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b02287.

Zimmerle DJ, Williams LL, Vaughn TL, Quinn C, Subramanian R, Duggan GP, Willson B, Opsomer JD, Marchese AJ, Martinez DM, et al. 2015. Methane emissions from the natural gas transmission and storage system in the United States. Environ Sci Technol 49(15):9374-9383, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01669.

Zavala-Araiza D, Lyon D, Alvarez RA, Palacios V, Harriss R, Lan X, Talbot R, Hamburg SP. 2015. Toward a functional definition of methane super-emitters: application to natural gas production sites. Environ Sci Technol 49(13):8167-8174, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00133.

Johnson DR, Covington AN, Clark NN. 2015. Methane emissions from leak and loss audits of natural gas compressor stations and storage facilities. Environ Sci Technol 49(13):8132-8138, doi: 10.1021/es506163m.

Smith ML, Kort EA, Karion A, Sweeney C, Herndon SC, Yacovitch TI. 2015. Airborne ethane observations in the Barnett Shale: quantification of ethane flux and attribution of methane emissions. Environ Sci Technol 49(13):8158-8166, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00219.

Lan X, Talbot R, Laine P, Torres A. 2015. Characterizing fugitive methane emissions in the Barnett Shale area using a mobile laboratory. Environ Sci Technol 49(13):8139-8146, doi: 10.1021/es5063055.

Karion A, Sweeney C, Kort EA, Shepson PB, Brewer A, Cambaliza M, Conley SA, Davis K, Deng A, Hardesty M, et al. 2015. Aircraft-based estimate of total methane emissions from the Barnett Shale region. Environ Sci Technol 49(13):8124-8131, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00217.

Lavoie TN, Shepson PB, Cambaliza MOL, Stirm BH, Karion A, Sweeney C, Yacovitch TI, Herndon SC, Lan X, Lyon D. 2015. Aircraft-based measurements of point source methane emissions in the Barnett Shale Basin. Environ Sci Technol 49(13):7904-7913, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00410.

Townsend-Small A, Marrero JE, Lyon DR, Simpson IJ, Meinardi S, Blake DR. 2015. Integrating source apportionment tracers into a bottom-up inventory of methane emissions in the Barnett Shale Hydraulic Fracturing Region. Environ Sci Technol 49(13):8175-8182, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00057.

Yuan B, Kaser L, Karl T, Graus M, Peischl J, Campos TL, Shertz S, Apel EC, Hornbrook RS, Hills A, et al. 2015. Airborne flux measurements of methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas production regions. J Geophys Res- Atmos doi: 10.1002/2015JD023242.

Vinciguerra T, Yao S, Dadzie J, Chittams A, Deskins T, Ehrman S, Dickerson RR. 2015. Regional air quality impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale natural gas activity: Evidence from ambient VOC observations. Atmos Environ 110: 144-150, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.03.056.

Nathan BJ, Golston LM, O’Brien AS, Ross K, Harrison WA, Tao L, Lary DJ, Johnson DR, Covington AN, Clark NN, et al. 2015. Near-field characterization of methane emission variability from a compressor station using a model aircraft. Environ Sci Technol 49(13):7896-7903, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00705.

Koss AR, de Gouw J, Warneke C, Gilman JB, Lerner BM, Graus M, Yuan B, Edwards P, Brown SS, Wild R, et al. 2015. Photochemical aging of volatile organic compounds associated with oil and natural gas extraction in the Uintah Basin, UT, during a wintertime ozone formation event. Atmos Chem Phys 15: 5727-5741, doi:10.5194/acp-15-5727-2015.

Roscioli JR, Yacovitch TI, Floerchinger C, Mitchell AL, Tkacik DS, Subramanian R, Martinez DM, Vaughn TL, Williams L, Zimmerle D, et al. 2015. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods. Atmos Meas Tech 8(5):2017-2035, doi: 10.5194/amt-8-2017-2015.

Goetz JD, Floerchinger C, Fortner EC, Wormhoudt J, Massoli P, Knighton WB, Hemdon SC, Kolb CE, Knipping E, Shaw ST, et al. 2015. Atmospheric emission characterization of Marcellus shale natural gas development sites. Environ Sci Technol 49(11): 7012-7020, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00452.

Rella CW, Tsai TR, Botkin CG, Crosson ER, Steele D. 2015. Measuring emissions from oil and natural gas well pads using the mobile flux plane technique. Environ Sci Technol 49(7):4742-4748, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00099.

Lamb BK, Edburg SL, Ferrara TW, Howard T, Harrison MR, Kolb CE, Townsend-Small A, Dyck W, Possolo A, Whetstone JR. 2015. Direct measurements show decreasing methane emissions from natural gas local distribution systems in the United States. Environ Sci Technol 49(8):5161-5169, doi: 10.1021/es505116p.

Field RA, Soltis J, McCarthy MC, Murphy S, Montague DC. 2015. Influence of oil and gas field operations on spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons and their effect on ozone formation in winter. Atmos Chem Phys 15(6):3527-3542, doi: 10.5194/acp-15-3527-2015.

Peischl J, Ryerson TB, Aikin KC, de Gouw JA, Gilman JB, Holloway JS, Lerner BM, Nadkarni R, Neuman JA, Nowak JB, et al. 2015. Quantifying atmospheric methane emissions from the Haynesville, Fayetteville, and northeastern Marcellus shale gas production regions. J Geophys Res Atmos 120(5):2119-2139, doi: 10.1002/2014JD022697.

Yacovitch TI, Herndon SC, Pétron G, Kofler J, Lyon D, Zahniser MS, Kolb CE. 2015. Mobile laboratory observations of methane emissions in the Barnett Shale region. Environ Sci Technol 49(13):7889-7895, doi: 10.1021/es506352j.

Brown DR, Lewis C, Weinberger BI. 2015. Human exposure to unconventional natural gas development: A public health demonstration of periodic high exposure to chemical mixtures in ambient air. J Environ Sci Health, Part A 50(5):460-472, doi: 10.1080/10934529.2015.992663.

Pacsi AP, Kimura Y, McGaughey G, McDonald-Buller EC, Allen DT. 2015. Regional ozone impacts of increased natural gas use in the Texas power sector and development in the Eagle Ford Shale. Environmental Science & Technology 49(6):3966-3973.

Mitchell AL, Tkacik DS, Roscioli JR, Herndon SC, Yacovitch TI, Martinez DM, Vaughn TL, Williams LL, Sullivan MR, Floerchinger C, et al. 2015. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement results. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/es5052809.

Subramanian R, Williams LL, Vaughn TL, Zimmerle D, Roscioli JR, Herndon SC, Yacovitch TI, Floerchinger C, Tkacik DS, Mitchell AL, et al. 2015. Methane emissions from natural gas compressor stations in the transmission and storage sector: measurements and comparisons with the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program protocol. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/es5060258.

Swarthout RF, Russo RS, Zhou Y, Miller BM, Mitchell B, Horsman E, Lipsky E, McCabe DC, Baum E, Sive BC. 2015. Impact of Marcellus Shale natural gas development in southwest Pennsylvania on volatile organic compound emissions and regional air quality. Environ Sci Technol doi 10.1021/es504315f.

Kang M, Kanno CM, Reid MC, Zhang X, Mauzerall DL, Celia MA, Chen Y, Onstott TC. 2014. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania. Proc Natl Acad Sci 111(51):18173-18177, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1408315111.

Tyner DR, Johnson MR. 2014. Emission factors for hydraulically fractured gas wells derived using well- and battery-level reported data for Alberta, Canada. Environ Sci Technol 48(24):14772-14781, doi: 10.1021/es502815b.

Allen DT, Sullivan DW, Zavala-Araiza D, Pacsi AP, Harrison M, Keen K, Fraser MP, Hill AD, Lamb BK, Sawyer RF, et al. 2015. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: liquid unloadings. Environ Sci Technol 49(1): 641-648, doi: 10.1021/es504016r.

Allen DT, Pacsi AP, Sullivan DW, Zavala-Araiza D, Harrison M, Keen K, Fraser MP, Hill AD, Sawyer RF, Seinfeld JH. 2015. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.  Environ Sci Technol 49(1): 633-640, doi: 10.1021/es5040156.

Heath G, Meldrum J, Fisher N, Arent D, Bazilian M. 2014. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from Barnett Shale gas used to generate electricity. Journal of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources 8:46-55, doi: 10.1016/j.juogr.2014.07.002.

Zielinska B, Campbell D, Samburova V. 2014. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 64(12): 1369-1383, doi:10.1080/10962247.2014.954735.

Thompson CR, Hueber J, Helmig D. 2014. Influence of oil and gas emissions on ambient atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in residential areas of Northeastern Colorado. Elem Sci Anth 2: 000035, doi: 10.12952/journal.elementa.000035.

Macey GP, Breech R, Chernaik M, Cox C, Larson D, Thomas D, Carpenter DO. 2014. Air concentrations of volatile compounds near oil and gas production: a community-based exploratory study. Environ Health 13: 82, doi:10.1186/1476-069X-13-82.

McLeod JD, Brinkman GL, Milford JB. 2014. Emissions implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and in the Rocky Mountain Region. Environ Sci Technol 48(22):13036-13044, doi: 10.1021/es5029537.

Warneke C, Geiger F, Edwards PM, Dube W, Pétron G, Kofler J, Zahn A, Brown SS, Graus M, Gilman JB, et al. 2014. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition. Atmos Chem Phys 14: 10977-10988, doi:10.5194/acp-14-10977-2014.

Kort EA, Frankenberg C, Costigan KR, Lindenmaier R, Dubey MK, Wunch D. 2014. Four corners: The largest US methane anomaly viewed from space. Geophys Res Lett 41(19):6898-6903, doi: 10.1002/2014GL061503.

Schneising O, Burrows JP, Dickerson RR, Buchwitz M, Reuter M, Bovensmann H. 2014. Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production in North American tight geologic formations. Earth's Future 2: 548-558, doi: 10.1002/2014EF000265.

Edwards PM, Brown SS, Roberts JM, Ahmadov R, Banta RM, deGouw JA, Dube WP, Field RA, Flynn JH, Gilman JB, et al. 2014. High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin. Nature 514: 351-354, doi: 10.1038/nature13767.

Pekney NJ, Veloski G, Reeder M, Tamilia J, Rupp E, Wetzel A. 2014. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania’s Allegheny National Forest. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 64(9): 1062-1072, doi: 10.1080/10962247.2014.897270.

Sommariva R, Blake RS, Cuss RJ, Cordell RL, Harrington JF, White IR, Monks PS. 2014. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale. Environ Sci Technol 48(15): 8891-8896, doi: 10.1021/es502508w.

Eapi GR, Sabnis MS, Sattler ML. 2014. Mobile measurement of methane and hydrogen sulfide at natural gas production fence lines in the Texas Barnett Shale. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 64(8): 927-944, doi: 10.1080/10962247.2014.907098.

Caulton DR, Shepson PB, Cambaliza MOL, McCabe D, Baum E, Stirm BH. 2014. Methane destruction efficiency of natural gas flares associated with shale formation wells. Environ Sci Technol 48(16): 9548-9554, doi: 10.1021/es500511w.

Rappenglück B, Ackermann L, Alvarez S, Golovko J, Buhr M, Field RA, Soltis J, Montague DC, Hauze B, Adamson S, et al. 2014. Strong wintertime ozone events in the Upper Green River basin, Wyoming. Atmos Chem Phys 14: 4909-4934, doi: 10.5194/acp-14-4909-2014.

Howarth RW. 2014. A bridge to nowhere: methane emissions and the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. Energy Sci Eng 2(2): 47-60, doi: 10.1002/ese3.35.

Jeong S, Millstein D, Fischer ML. 2014. Spatially explicit methane emissions from petroleum production and the natural gas system in California. Environ Sci Technol 48(10): 5982-5990, doi: 10.1021/es4046692.

Brown D, Weinberger B, Lewis C, Bonaparte H. 2014. Understanding exposure from natural gas drilling puts current air standards to the test. Rev Environ Health 29(41): 277-292, doi: 10.1515/reveh-2014-0002.

Zavala-Araiza D, Sullivan DW, Allen DT. 2014. Atmoshperic hydrocarbon emissions and concentrations in the Barnett Shale natural gas production region. Eniron Sci Technol 48(9): 5314-5321, doi: 10.1021/es405770h.

Petron G, Karion A, Sweeney C, Miller BR, Montzka SA, Frost G, Trainer M, Tans P, Andrews A, Kofler J, et al. 2014. A new look at methane and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin. J Geophys Res Atmos 119(11): 6836-6852, doi: 10.1002/2013JD021272.

Field RA, Soltis J, Murphy S. 2014. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas development. Environ Sci: Processes Impacts 16: 954-969, doi: 1186/1476-069X-13-82.

Helmig D, Thompson C, Evans J, Park J-H. 2014. Highly elevated atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds in the Uintah Basin, Utah. Environ Sci Technol 48(9): 4707-4715, doi: 10.1021/es405046r.

Caulton DR, Shepson PB, Santoro RL, Sparks JP, Howarth RW, Ingraffea AR, Cambaliza MOL, Sweeney C, Karion A, Davis KJ, Stirm BH, Montzka SA, Miller BR. 2014. Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development. PNAS 111(17): 6237-6242, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1316546111.

Oltmans S, Schnell R, Johnson B, Petron G, Mefford T, Neely R. 2014. Anatomy of wintertime ozone associated with oil and natural gas extraction activity in Wyoming and Utah. Elem Sci Anth 2: 000024, doi: 10.12952/journal.elementa.000024.

Moore CW, Zielinska B, Petron G, Jackson RB. 2014. Air impacts of increased natural gas acquisition, processing, and use: a critical review. Environ Sci Technol 48(15): 8349-8359, doi: 10.1021/es4053472.

Brandt AR, Heath GA, Kort EA, O'Sullivan F, Petron G, Jordaan SM, Trans P, Wilcox J, Gopstein AM. Arent D, Wofsy S, Brown NJ, Bradley R, Stucky GD, Eardley D, Harriss R. 2014. Methane leaks from North American natural gas systems. Science 343(6172): 733-735, doi: 10.1126/science.1247045.

Allen DT. 2014. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 5: 55-75, doi: 10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060713-035938.

Musselman RC, Korfmacher JL. 2014. Ozone in remote areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains. Atmos Environ 82: 383-390, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.10.051.

Roy AA, Adams PJ, Robinson AL. 2014. Air pollutant emissions from the development, production and processing of Marcellus Shale natural gas. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 64(1): 19-37, doi: 10.1080/10962247.2013.826151.

Colborn T, Schultz K, Herrick L, and Kwiatkowski C. 2014. An exploratory study of air quality near natural gas operations. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 20(1): 86-105, doi: 10.1080/10807039.2012.749447.

Miller SM, Wofsy SC, Michalak AM, Kort EA, Andrews AE, Biraud SC, Dlugokencky EJ, Eluszkiewicz J, Fischer ML, Janssens-Maenhout G, et al. 2013. Anthropogenic emissions of methane in the United States. PNAS 110(50): 20018-20022, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1314392110.

Swarthout RF, Russ RS, Zhou Y, Hart AH, Sive BC. 2013. Volatile organic compound distributions during the NACHTT campaign at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory: influence of urban and natural gas sources. J Geophys Res Atmos 118(18): 10,614-10,637, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50722.

Allen DT, Torres VM, Thomas J, Sullivan DW, Harrison M, Hendler A, Herndon SC, Kolb CE, Fraser MP, Hill AD, et al. 2013. Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States. PNAS 110(44): 17768-17773, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1304880110.

Edwards PM, Young CJ, Aikin K, deGouw J, Dubé WP, Geiger F, Gilman J, Helmig D, Holloway JS, Kercher J, etal. 2013. Ozone photochemistry in an oil and natural gas extraction region during winter: simulations of a snow-free season in the Uintah Basin, Utah. Atmos Chem Phys 13: 8955-8971, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-8955-2013.

Rich A, Grover JP, Sattler ML. 2013. An exploratory study of air emissions associated with shale gas development and production in the Barnett Shale. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 64(1): 61-72, doi: 10.1080/10962247.2013.832713.

Karion A, Sweeney C, Petron G, Frost G, Hardesty RM, Kofler J, Miller BR, newberger T, Wolter S, Banta R, Brewer A, Dlugokencky E, Lang P, Montzka SA, Schnell R, Tans P, Trainer M, Zamora R, Conley S. 2013. Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field. Geophys Res Lett 40(16): 4393-4397, doi: 10.1002/grl.50811.

Pacsi AP, Alhajeri NS, Zavala-Araiza D, Webster MD, Allen DT. 2013. Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas. Environ Sci Technol 47(7):3521-3527, doi: 10.1021/es3044714.

Gilman JB, Lerner BM, Kuster WC, de Gouw JA. 2013. Source signature of volatile organic compounds from oil and natural gas operations in northeastern Colorado. Environ Sci Technol 47(3): 1297-305, doi: 10.1021/es304119a.

Litovitz A, Cutright AE, Abramzon S, Burger N, Samaras C. 2013. Estimation of regional air-quality damages from Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction in Pennsylvania. Environ Res Lett 8(1): 1-8, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014017.

Cooper OR, Gao R-S, Tarasick D, Leblanc T, Sweeney C. 2012. Long-term ozone trends at rural ozone monitoring sites across the United States, 1990–2010. J Geophys Res Atmos 117(D22):n/a-n/a, doi: 10.1029/2012JD018261.

O'Sullivan F, Paltsev S. 2012. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions. Environ Res Lett 7(4): 044030-044036, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030.

Olaguer, EP. 2012. The potential near-source ozone impacts of upstream oil and gas industry emissions. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 62(8): 966-977, doi: 10.1080/10962247.2012.688923.

McKenzie LM, Witter RZ, Newman, LS, Adgate JL. 2012. Human health risk assessment of air emissions from development of unconventional natural gas resources. Sci Total Environ 424: 79-87, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.018.

Alvarez RA, Pacala SW, Winebrake JJ, Chameides WL, Hamburg SP. 2012. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(17):6435-6440, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1202407109.

Petron G, Frost G, Miller BR, Hirsch AI, Montzka SA, Karion A, Trainer M, Sweeney C, Andrews AE, Miller L, et al. 2012. Hydrocarbon emissions characterization in the Colorado Front Range: a pilot study. JGeophys Res 117 D04304: doi: 10.1029/2011JD016360.

Howarth RW, Santoro R, Ingraffea A. 2011. Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations. Climatic Change Letters 106(4): 679-690, doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0061-5.

Kemball-Cook S, Bar-Ilan A, Grant J, Parker L, Jung J, Santamaria W, Mathews J, Yarwood G. 2010. Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale. Environ Sci Technol 44(24): 9357-9363, doi: 10.1021/es1021137.

Rodriguez MA, Barna MG, Moore T. 2009. Regional impacts of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 59: 1111-1118, doi: 10.3155/1047-3289.59.9.1111.

Schnell RC, Oltmans SJ, Neely RR, Endres MS, Molenar JV, White AB. 2009. Rapid photochemical production of ozone at high concentrations in a rural site during winter. Nature Geosci 2(2): 120-122, doi: 10.1038/ngeo415.

Katzenstein AS, Doezema LA, Simpson IJ, Blake DR, Rowland FS. 2003. Extensive regional atmospheric hydrocarbon pollution in the southwestern United States. PNAS 100(21): 11975-11979, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1635258100.

Leahey DM, Preston K, Stosher M. 2001. Theoretical and observational assessments of flare efficiencies. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 51(12): 1610-1616, doi: 10.1080/10473289.2001.10464390.

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Health

Cozzarelli IM, Skalak KJ, Kent DB, Engle MA, Benthem A, Mumford AC, Haase K, Farag A, Harper D, Nagel SC, et al. 2017. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota. Sci Total Environ doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.157.

Stacy SL. 2017. A review of the human health impacts of unconventional natural gas development. Current Epidemiology Reports:1-8, doi: 10.1007/s40471-017-0097-9.

Elliott EG, Trinh P, Ma X, Leaderer BP, Ward MH, Deziel NC. 2017. Unconventional oil and gas development and risk of childhood leukemia: Assessing the evidence. Sci Total Environ 576:138-147, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.072.

He Y, Folkerts EJ, Zhang Y, Martin JW, Alessi DS, Goss GG. 2017. Effects on biotransformation, oxidative stress, and endocrine disruption in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water. Environ Sci Technol 51(2):940-947, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b04695.

Hays J, McCawley M, Shonkoff SBC. 2016. Public health implications of environmental noise associated with unconventional oil and gas development. Sci Total Environ doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.118.

Finkel ML. 2016. Shale gas development and cancer incidence in southwest Pennsylvania. Public Health 141:198-206, doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2016.09.008.

Stringfellow WT, Camarillo MK, Domen JK, Sandelin WL, Varadharajan C, Jordan PD, Reagan MT, Cooley H, Heberger MG, Birkholzer JT. 2016. Identifying chemicals of concern in hydraulic fracturing fluids used for oil production. Environ Pollut doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.09.082.

Balise VD, Meng C-X, Cornelius-Green JN, Kassotis CD, Kennedy R, Nagel SC. 2016. Systematic review of the association between oil and natural gas extraction processes and human reproduction. Fertil Steril doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.07.1099.

Tustin AW, Hirsch A, Rasmussen S, Casey J, Bandeen-Roche K, Schwartz B. 2016.  Associations between unconventional natural gas development and nasal and sinus, migraine headache, and fatigue symptoms in Pennsylvania. Envion Health Perspect doi: 10.1289/EHP281.

Durant B, Abualfaraj N, Olson MS, Gurian PL. 2016. Assessing dermal exposure risk to workers from flowback water during shale gas hydraulic fracturing activity. J Nat Gas Sci Eng doi: 10.1016/j.jngse.2016.07.051.

Rasmussen SG, Ogburn EL, McCormack M, Casey JA, Bandeen-Roche K, Mercer DG, Schwartz BS. 2016. Association between unconventional natural gas development in the marcellus shale and asthma exacerbations. JAMA Internal Medicine doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.2436.

Paulik LB, Donald CE, Smith BW, Tidwell LG, Hobbie KA, Kincl L, Haynes EN, Anderson KA. 2016. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from natural gas extraction into air. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02762.

Kassotis CD, Bromfield JJ, Klemp KC, Meng CX, Wolfe A, Zoeller RT, Balise VD, Isiguzo CJ, Tillitt DE, Nagel SC. 2016. Adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes following prenatal exposure to a hydraulic fracturing chemical mixture in female C57Bl/6 Mice. Endocrinology doi: 10.1210/en.2016-1242.

Ishikawa M, Muraguchi R, Azuma A, Nawata S, Miya M, Katsuura T, Naito T, Oyama Y. 2016. Cytotoxic actions of 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, a biocide in hydraulic fracturing fluids, on rat thymocytes. Toxicol Res 5(5):1329-1334, doi: 10.1039/C6TX00027D.

Webb E, Hays J, Dyrszka L, Rodriguez B, Cox C, Huffling K, Bushkin-Bedient S. 2016. Potential hazards of air pollutant emissions from unconventional oil and natural gas operations on the respiratory health of children and infants. Rev Environ Health doi: 10.1515/reveh-2014-0070.

Rich AL, Orimoloye HT. 2016. Elevated atmospheric levels of benzene and benzene-related compounds from unconventional shale extraction and processing: human health concern for residential communities. Environ Health Insights 10:75-82, doi: 10.4137/EHI.S33314.

Yost EE, Stanek J, DeWoskin RS, Burgoon LD. 2016. Estimating the potential toxicity of chemicals associated with hydraulic fracturing operations using quantitative structure–activity relationship modeling. Environ Sci Technol 50(14):7732-7742, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b05327.

Rahman HH, Johnson GT, Harbison RD. 2016. Occupational health surveillance: pulmonary function test in proppant exposures. Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine 4:37-45, doi: 10.4236/odem.2016.42005.

McDermott-Levy R, Garcia V. 2016. Health concerns of northeastern Pennsylvania residents living in an unconventional oil and gas development county. Public Health Nurs doi: 10.1111/phn.12265.

Kassotis CD, Iwanowicz LR, Akob DM, Cozzarelli IM, Mumford AC, Orem WH, Nagel SC. 2016. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site. Sci Total Environ doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.113.

Yost EE, Stanek J, DeWoskin RS, Burgoon LD. 2016. Overview of chronic oral toxicity values for chemicals present in hydraulic fracturing fluids, flowback, and produced waters. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04645.

Rich AL, Patel JT, Al-Angari SS. 2016. Carbon disulfide (CS(2)) interference in glucose metabolism from unconventional oil and gas extraction and processing emissions. Environmental Health Insights 10:51-57, doi: 10.4137/EHI.S31906.

Mitchell AL, Griffin WM, Casman EA. 2016. Lung cancer risk from radon in Marcellus Shale gas in northeast U.S. homes. Risk Anal doi: 10.1111/risa.12570.

Werner AK, Watt K, Cameron CM, Vink S, Page A, Jagals P. 2016. All-age hospitalization rates in coal seam gas areas in Queensland, Australia, 1995–2011. BMC Public Health 16(1):125, doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-2787-5.

Ma Z, Sneeringer K, Liu L, Kuller L. 2016. Time series evaluation of birth defects in areas with and without unconventional natural gas development. J Public Health Epidemiol 1(2), doi: 10.16966/2471-8211.107.

Elliott EG, Ettinger AS, Leaderer BP, Bracken MB, Deziel NC. 2016. A systematic evaluation of chemicals in hydraulic-fracturing fluids and wastewater for reproductive and developmental toxicity. J Expos Sci Environ Epidemiol, doi: 10.1038/jes.2015.81.

Boyle MD, Payne-Sturges DC, Sangaramoorthy T, Wilson S, Nachman KE, Babik K, Jenkins CC, Trowell J, Milton DK, Sapkota A. 2016. Hazard ranking methodology for assessing health impacts of unconventional natural gas development and production: the Maryland case study. PLoS One 11(1):e0145368, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145368.

Mrdjen I, Lee J. 2015. High volume hydraulic fracturing operations: potential impacts on surface water and human health. International journal of environmental health research:1-23, doi: 10.1080/09603123.2015.1111314.

Walters K, Jacobson J, Kroening Z, Pierce C. 2015. PM 2.5 Airborne particulates near frac sand operations. J Environ Health 78(4):8-12.

Reap E. 2015. The risk of hydraulic fracturing on public health in the UK and the UK's fracking legislation. Environmental Sciences Europe 27(1):27, doi: 10.1186/s12302-015-0059-0.

Kassotis CD, Klemp KC, Vu DC, Lin C-H, Meng C-X, Besch-Williford CL, Pinatti L, Zoeller RT, Drobnis EZ, Balise VD, et al. 2015. Endocrine-disrupting activity of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and adverse health outcomes after prenatal exposure in male mice. Endocrinology, doi: 10.1210/en.2015-1375.

Casey JA, Savitz DA, Rasmussen SG, Ogburn EL, Pollak J, Mercer DG, Schwartz BS. 2015. Unconventional natural gas development and birth outcomes in Pennsylvania, USA. Epidemiology doi: 10.1097/ede.0000000000000387.

Duncan IJ. 2015. Does methane pose significant health and public safety hazards?—A review. Environmental Geosciences 22(3):85-96, doi: 10.1306/eg.06191515005.

Kassotis CD, Tillitt DE, Lin C-H, McElroy JA, Nagel SC. 2015. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in oil and natural gas operations: potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures. Environ Health Perspect, doi:10.1289/ehp.1409535.

Olaguer EP, Erickson M, Wijesinghe A, Neish B, Williams J, Colvin J. 2015. Updated methods for assessing the impacts of nearby gas drilling and production on neighborhood air quality and human health. J Air Waste Manag Assoc doi: 10.1080/10962247.2015.1083914.

Zhang T, Hammack RW, Vidic RD. 2015. Fate of radium in Marcellus Shale flowback water impoundments and assessment of associated health risks. Environ Sci Technol  49(15):9347-9354, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01393.

Olawoyin R. 2015. Modelling the health risks of exposure to respirable crystalline silica from hydraulic fracturing operations inthe USA shale plays. Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics 1(1):25-34, doi: 10.5430/jbei.v1n1p25.

Yao Y, Chen T, Shen SS, Niu Y, DesMarais TL, Linn R, Saunders E, Fan Z, Lioy P, Kluz T, et al. 2015. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 288(1):121-130, doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2015.07.011.

Jemielita T, Gerton GL, Neidell M, Chillrud S, Yan B, Stute M, Howarth M, Saberi P, Fausti N, Penning TM, Roy J, Propert KJ, Panettieri RA. 2015. Unconventional gas and oil drilling is associated with increased hospital utilization rates. PLoS ONE 10(7): e0131093, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131093.

Stacy SL, Brink LL, Larkin JC, Sadovsky Y, Goldstein BD, Pitt BR, Talbott EO. 2015. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in southwest Pennsylvania. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0126425, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126425.

McCawley M. 2015. Air contaminants associated with potential respiratory effects from unconventional resource development activities. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 36(3): 379-387, doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1549453.

Bolden AL, Kwiatkowski CF, Colborn T. 2015. New look at BTEX: are ambient levels a problem? Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/es505316f.

Wattenberg EV, Bielicki JM, Suchomel AE, Sweet JT, Vold EM, Ramachandran G. 2015. Assessment of the acute and chronic hazards of hydraulic fracturing fluids. J Occup Environ Hyg doi: 10.1080/15459624.2015.1029612.

Brown DR, Lewis C, Weinberger BI. 2015. Human exposure to unconventional natural gas development: A public health demonstration of periodic high exposure to chemical mixtures in ambient air. J Environ Sci Health, Part A 50(5):460-472, doi: 10.1080/10934529.2015.992663.

Bamberger M, Oswald RE. 2015. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health. Journal of environmental science and health Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering 50(5):447-459, doi: 10.1080/10934529.2015.992655.

Slizovsky IB, Conti LA, Trufan SJ, Reif JS, Lamers VT, Stowe MH, Dziura J, Rabinowitz PM. 2015. Reported health conditions in animals residing near natural gas wells in southwestern Pennsylvania. Journal of environmental science and health Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering 50(5):473-481, 10.1080/10934529.2015.992666.

Werner AK, Vink S, Watt K, Jagals. 2015. Environmental health impacts of unconventional natural gas development: a review of the current strength of evidence. Sci Total Environ 505: 1127-1141, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.084.

Pride KR, Peel JL, Robinson BF, Busacker A, Grandpre J, Bisgard KM, Yip FY, Murphy TD. 2015. Association of short-term exposure to ground-level ozone and respiratory outpatient clinic visits in a rural location – Sublette County, Wyoming, 2008–2011. Environ Res 137:1-7, doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.10.033.

Webb E, Bushkin-Bedient S, Cheng A, Kassotis CD, Balise V, Nagel SC. 2014. Developmental and reproductive effects of chemicals associated with unconventional oil and natural gas operations. Rev Environ Health 29(4): 307-318, doi: 10.1515/reveh-2014-0057.

Bloomdahl R, Abualfaraj N, Olson M, Gurian PL. 2014. Assessing worker exposure to inhaled volatile organic compounds from Marcellus Shale flowback pits. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 21:348-356, doi:10.1016/j.jngse.2014.08.018.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2014.08.018.

Macey GP, Breech R, Chernaik M, Cox C, Larson D, Thomas D, Carpenter DO. 2014. Air concentrations of volatile compounds near oil and gas production: a community-based exploratory study. Environ Health 13: 82, doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-82.

Rabinowitz PM, Slizovskiy IB, Lamers V, Trufan SJ, Holford TR, Dziura JD, Peduzzi PN, Kane MJ, Reif JS, Weiss TR, et al. 2014. Proximity to natural gas wells and reported health status: results of a household survey in Washington County, Pennsylvania. Environ Health Perspect 123(1),  doi: 10.1289/ehp.1307732.

Payne ME, Chapman HF, Cumming J, Leusch FDL. 2015. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of a hydraulic fracturing fluid. Envir Chem 12(3):286-292, doi: 10.1071/EN14010.

Esswein EJ, Snawder J, King B, Breitenstein M, Alexander-Scott M, Kiefer M. 2014. Evaluation of some potential chemical exposure risks during flowback operations in unconventional oil and gas extraction: preliminary results. J Occup Environ Hyg 11(10): D174-D184, doi: 10.1080/15459624.2014.933960.

Rosenman KD. 2014. Hydraulic fracturing and the risk of silicosis. Clin Pulm Med 21(4):167-172, doi: 10.1097/cpm.0000000000000046.

Witter RZ, Tenney L, Clark S, Newman LS. 2014. Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: state of the science and research recommendations. Am J Ind Med 57: 847–856, doi: 10.1002/ajim.22316.

Saberi P, Propert K, Powers M, Emmett E, Green-McKenzie J. 2014. Field survey of health perception and complaints of Pennsylvania residents in the Marcellus Shale region. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11(6):6517-6527, doi:10.3390/ijerph110606517.

Bamberger M, Oswald RE. 2014. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health. Environ Sci: Processes Impacts 16(8): 1860-1865, doi: 10.1039/c4em00150h.

Shonkoff SB, Hays J, Finkel ML. 2014. Environmental public health dimensions of shale and tight gas development. Environ Health Perspect 122: 787-795, doi: 10.1289/ehp.1307866.

Brown D, Weinberger B, Lewis C, Bonaparte H. 2014. Understanding exposure from natural gas drilling puts current air standards to the test. Rev Environ Health 29(41): 277-292, doi: 10.1515/reveh-2014-0002.

Adgate JL, Goldstein BD, McKenzie LM. 2014. Potential public health hazards, exposures, and health effects from unconventional natural gas development. Environ Sci Technol 48: 8307-8320, doi: 10.1021/es404621d.

McKenzie LM, Guo R, Witter RZ, Savitz DA, Newman LS, Adgate JL. 2014. Birth outcomes and maternal residential proximity to natural gas development in rural Colorado. Environ Health Perspect: 122(4): 412-417, doi: 10.1289/ehp.1306722.

Bunch AG, Perry CS, Abraham L, Wikoff DS, Tachovsky JA, Hixon JG, Urban JD, Harris MA, Haws LC. 2014. Evaluation of impact of shale gas operations in the Barnett Shale region on volatile organic compounds in air and potential human health risks. Sci Total Environ 468–469:832-842, doi:.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.080.

Kassotis CD, Tillitt DE, Davis JW, Hormann AM, Nagel SC. 2013. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region. Endocrinology 155(3): 897-907, doi: 10.1210/en.2013-1697.

Fryzek J, Pastula S, Jiang X, Garabrant DH. 2013. Childhood cancer incidence in Pennsylvania counties in relation to living in counties with hydraulic fracturing sites. J Occup Environ Med 55(7):796-801, doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318289ee02.

McDermott-Levy BR, Kaktins N, Sattler B. 2013. Fracking, the environment, and health. Am J Nurs 113(6): 45-51, doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000431272.83277.f4.

Witter RZ, McKenzie L, Stinson KE, Scott K, Newman LS, Adgate J. 2013. The use of health impact assessment for a community undergoing natural gas development. Am J Public Health 103(6): 1002-1010, doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.301017.

Ferrar KJ, Kriesky J, Christen CL, Marshall LP, Malone SL, Sharma RK, Michanowicz DR, Goldstein BD. 2013. Assessment and longitudinal analysis of health impacts and stressors perceived to result from unconventional shale gas development in the Marcellus Shale region. Int J Occup Env Health 19(2): 104-112, doi: 10.1179/2049396713Y.0000000024.

Esswein EJ, Breitenstein M, Snawder J, Kiefer M, Sieber WK. 2013. Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. J Occup Environ Hyg 10(7): 347-356, doi: 10.1080/15459624.2013.788352.

Steinzor N, Subra W, Sumi L. 2013. Investigating links between shale gas development and health impacts through a community survey project in Pennsylvania. New Solut 23(1): 55-83, doi: 10.2190/NS.23.1.e.

Olaguer, EP. 2012. The potential near-source ozone impacts of upstream oil and gas industry emissions. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 62(8): 966-977, doi: 10.1080/10962247.2012.688923.

Ovuakporaye SI, Aloamaka CP, Ojieh AE, Ejebe DE, Mordi JC. 2012. Effect of gas flaring on lung function among residents in gas flaring community in Delta State, Nigeria. Res J Environ Earth Sci 4(5): 525-528.

McKenzie LM, Witter RZ, Newman, LS, Adgate JL. 2012. Human health risk assessment of air emissions from development of unconventional natural gas resources. Sci Total Environ 424: 79-87, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.018.

Bamberger M, Oswald RE. 2012. Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health. New Solut 22(1): 51-77, doi: 10.2190/NS.22.1.e.

Colborn T, Kwiatkowski C, Schultz K, Bachran M. 2011. Natural gas operations from a public health perspective. Human & Ecological Risk Assessment 17(5): 1039-1056, doi:10.1080/10807039.2011.605662.

Bechtel DG, Waldner CL, Wickstrom M. 2009. Associations between in utero exposure to airborne emissions from oil and gas production and processing facilities and immune system outcomes in neonatal beef calves. Arch Environ Occup Health 64(1):59-71, doi: 10.3200/aeoh.64.1.59-71.

Bechtel DG, Waldner CL, Wickstrom M. 2009. Associations between immune function in yearling beef cattle and airborne emissions of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and VOCs from oil and natural gas facilities. Arch Environ Occup Health 64(1):73-86, doi:10.3200/aeoh.64.1.73-86.

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Water

Yan B, Stute M, Panettieri Jr RA, Ross J, Mailloux B, Neidell MJ, Soares L, Howarth M, Liu X, Saberi P, et al. 2017. Association of groundwater constituents with topography and distance to unconventional gas wells in NE Pennsylvania. Sci Total Environ 577:195-201, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.160.

Yost EE, Stanek J, Burgoon LD. 2017. A decision analysis framework for estimating the potential hazards for drinking water resources of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. Sci Total Environ 574:1544-1558, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.167.

Li Z, You C, Gonzales M, Wendt AK, Wu F, Brantley SL. 2016. Searching for anomalous methane in shallow groundwater near shale gas wells. J Contam Hydrol doi: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2016.10.005.

Shrestha N, Chilkoor G, Wilder J, Gadhamshetty V, Stone JJ. 2016. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale. Water Res doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.11.006.

Oikonomou PD, Kallenberger JA, Waskom RM, Boone KK, Plombon EN, Ryan JN. 2016. Water acquisition and use during unconventional oil and gas development and the existing data challenges: Weld and Garfield counties, CO. J Environ Manage 181:36-47, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.06.008.

Hildenbrand ZL, Carlton Jr DD, Meik JM, Taylor JT, Fontenot BE, Walton JL, Henderson D, Thacker JB, Korlie S, Whyte CJ, et al. 2016. A reconnaissance analysis of groundwater quality in the Eagle Ford shale region reveals two distinct bromide/chloride populations. Sci Total Environ doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.070.

LeDoux STM, Szynkiewicz A, Faiia AM, Mayes MA, McKinney ML, Dean WG. 2016. Chemical and isotope compositions of shallow groundwater in areas impacted by hydraulic fracturing and surface mining in the Central Appalachian Basin, Eastern United States. Appl Geochem 71:73-85, doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2016.05.007.

Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Male F, Hove M. 2016. Managing the increasing water footprint of hydraulic fracturing in the Bakken Play, United States. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01375.

Hildenbrand ZL, Carlton Jr DD, Fontenot BE, Meik JM, Walton JL, Thacker JB, Korlie S, Shelor CP, Kadjo AF, Clark A, et al. 2016. Temporal variation in groundwater quality in the Permian Basin of Texas, a region of increasing unconventional oil and gas development. Sci Total Environ 562:906-913, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.144.

Sherwood OA, Rogers JD, Lackey G, Burke TL, Osborn SG, Ryan JN. 2016. Groundwater methane in relation to oil and gas development and shallow coal seams in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado. Proc Natl Acad Sci doi: 10.1073/pnas.1523267113.

Kang M, Jackson RB. 2016. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: water quantity, quality, and protection. Proc Natl Acad Sci doi: 10.1073/pnas.1600400113.

Tiedeman K, Yeh S, Scanlon BR, Teter J, Mishra GS. 2016. Recent trends in water use and production for California oil production. Environ Sci Technol 50(14):7904-7912, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01240.

Brownlow JW, James SC, Yelderman JC. 2016. Influence of hydraulic fracturing on overlying aquifers in the presence of leaky abandoned wells. Groundwater doi: 10.1111/gwat.12431.

Kassotis CD, Iwanowicz LR, Akob DM, Cozzarelli IM, Mumford AC, Orem WH, Nagel SC. 2016. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site. Sci Total Environ doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.113.

Chen H, Carter KE. 2016. Water usage for natural gas production through hydraulic fracturing in the United States from 2008 to 2014. J Environ Manage 170:152-159, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.01.023.

DiGiulio DC, Jackson RB. 2016. Impact to underground sources of drinking water and domestic wells from production well stimulation and completion practices in the Pavillion, Wyoming, field. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04970.

Burton TG, Rifai HS, Hildenbrand ZL, Carlton Jr DD, Fontenot BE, Schug KA. 2016. Elucidating hydraulic fracturing impacts on groundwater quality using a regional geospatial statistical modeling approach. Sci Total Environ 545–546:114-126, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.084.

Horner RM, Harto CB, Jackson RB, Lowry ER, Brandt AR, Yeskoo TW, Murphy DJ, Clark CE. 2016. Water use and management in the Bakken Shale oil play in North Dakota. Environ Sci Technol 50(6):3275-3282, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04079.

Molofsky LJ, Connor JA, McHugh TE, Richardson SD, Woroszlyo C, Alvarez PJ. 2016. Environmental factors associated with natural methane occurrence in the Appalachian Basin. Ground Water doi: 10.1111/gwat.12401.

Christian KM, Lautz LK, Hoke GD, Siegel DI, Lu Z, Kessler J. 2016. Methane occurrence is associated with sodium-rich valley waters in domestic wells overlying the Marcellus shale in New York State. Water Resour Res 52(1):206-226, doi: 10.1002/2015WR017805.

Li H, Son J-H, Carlson KH. 2016. Concurrence of aqueous and gas phase contamination of groundwater in the Wattenberg oil and gas field of northern Colorado. Water Research 88:458-466, doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2015.10.031.

Torres L, Yadav OP, Khan E. 2016. A review on risk assessment techniques for hydraulic fracturing water and produced water management implemented in onshore unconventional oil and gas production. Sci Total Environ 539:478-493, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.030.

Darrah TH, Jackson RB, Vengosh A, Warner NR, Whyte CJ, Walsh TB, Kondash AJ, Poreda RJ. 2015. The evolution of Devonian hydrocarbon gases in shallow aquifers of the northern Appalachian Basin: Insights from integrating noble gas and hydrocarbon geochemistry. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 170:321-355, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2015.09.006.

Mrdjen I, Lee J. 2015. High volume hydraulic fracturing operations: potential impacts on surface water and human health. International journal of environmental health research:1-23, doi: 10.1080/09603123.2015.1111314.

Hammond PA. 2015. The relationship between methane migration and shale-gas well operations near Dimock, Pennsylvania, USA. Hydrogeo J: 1-17, doi: 10.1007/s10040-015-1332-4.

Kondash A, Vengosh A. 2015. Water footprint of hydraulic fracturing. Environ Sci Technol Lett doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00211.

Down A, Schreglmann K, Plata DL, Elsner M, Warner NR, Vengosh A, Moore K, Coleman D, Jackson RB. 2015. Pre-drilling background groundwater quality in the Deep River Triassic Basin of central North Carolina, USA. Appl Geochem 60: 3-13, doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.01.018

Lu Z, Hummel ST, Lautz LK, Hoke GD, Zhou X, Leone J, Siegel DI. 2015. Iodine as a sensitive tracer for detecting influence of organic-rich shale in shallow groundwater. Appl Geochem 60:29-36, doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.10.019.

Barth-Naftilan E, Aloysius N, Saiers JE. 2015. Spatial and temporal trends in freshwater appropriation for natural gas development in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale Play. Geophys Res Lett 42(15):6348-6356, doi: 10.1002/2015GL065240.

Drollette BD, Hoelzer K, Warner NR, Darrah TH, Karatum O, O’Connor MP, Nelson RK, Fernandez LA, Reddy CM, Vengosh A, et al. 2015. Elevated levels of diesel range organic compounds in groundwater near Marcellus gas operations are derived from surface activities. Proc Natl Acad Sci, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1511474112.

Birdsell DT, Rajaram H, Dempsey D, Viswanathan H. 2015. Hydraulic fracturing fluid migration in the subsurface: a review and modeling results. Water Resources Research doi: 10.1002/2015WR017810.

Jackson RB, Lowry ER, Pickle A, Kang M, DiGiulio D, Zhao K. 2015. The depths of hydraulic fracturing and accompanying water use across the United States. Environ Sci Technol 49(15):8969-8976, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01228.

Gallegos TJ, Varela BA, Haines SS, Engle MA. 2015. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications. Water Resour Res doi: 10.1002/2015WR017278.

Hildenbrand ZL, Carlton DD, Fontenot B, Meik JM, Walton J, Taylor J, Thacker J, Korlie S, Shelor CP, Henderson D, et al. 2015. A comprehensive analysis of groundwater quality in the Barnett Shale region. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01526.

Rodriguez RS, Soeder DJ. 2015. Evolving water management practices in shale oil & gas development. Journal of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources 10:18-24, doi: 10.1016/j.juogr.2015.03.002.

Rogers JD, Burke TL, Osborn SG, Ryan JN. 2015. A framework for identifying organic compounds of concern in hydraulic fracturing fluids based on their mobility and persistence in groundwater. Environ Sci Technol Lett 2(6): 158-164, doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00090.

Llewellyn GT, Dorman F, Westland JL, Yoxtheimer D, Grieve P, Sowers T, Humston-Fulmer E, Brantley SL. 2015. Evaluating a groundwater supply contamination incident attributed to Marcellus Shale gas development. PNAS doi:10.1073/pnas.1420279112.    

Reagan MT, Moridis GJ, Keen ND, Johnson JN. 2015. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport. Water Resour Res 51(4):2543-2573, doi: 10.1002/2014WR016086.

Moritz A, Hélie J-F, Pinti DL, Larocque M, Barnetche D, Retailleau S, Lefebvre R, Gélinas Y. 2015. Methane baseline concentrations and sources in shallow aquifers from the shale gas-prone region of the St. Lawrence Lowlands (Quebec, Canada). Environ Sci Technol 49(7): 4765-4771, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00443.

Nelson AW, Knight AW, Eitrheim ES, Schultz MK. 2015. Monitoring radionuclides in subsurface drinking water sources near unconventional drilling operations: a pilot study. J Environ Radioact 142:24-28, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2015.01.004.

Rhodes AL, Horton NJ. 2015. Establishing baseline water quality for household wells within the Marcellus Shale gas region, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. Appl Geochem doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.03.004.

Heilweil VM, Grieve PL, Hynek SA, Brantley SL, Solomon DK, Risser DW. 2015. Stream measurements locate thermogenic methane fluxes in groundwater discharge in an area of shale-gas development. Environ Sci Technol 49(7): 4057-4065, doi: 10.1021/es503882b.

Alawattegama SK, Kondratyuk T, Krynock R, Bricker M, Rutter JK, Bain DJ, Stolz JF. 2015. Well water contamination in a rural community in southwestern Pennsylvania near unconventional shale gas extraction. Journal of environmental science and health Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering 50(5):516-528, doi: 10.1080/10934529.2015.992684.

Stephens DB. 2015. Analysis of the groundwater monitoring controversy at the Pavillion, Wyoming natural gas field. Ground Water 53(1): 29-37, doi: 10.1111/gwat.12272.

Darrah TH, Vengosh A, Jackson RB, Warner NR, Poreda RJ. 2014. Noble gases identify the mechanisms of fugitive gas contamination in drinking-water wells overlying the Marcellus and Barnett Shales. PNAS 111(39): 14076-14081, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1322107111.

Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Nicot J-P. 2014. Comparison of water use for hydraulic fracturing for unconventional oil and gas versus conventional oil. Environ Sci Technol 48(20): 12386-12393, doi: 10.1021/es502506v.

Zhang L, Anderson N, Dilmore R, Soeder DJ, Bromhal G. 2014. Leakage detection of Marcellus Shale natural gas at an Upper Devonian gas monitoring well: a 3-D numerical modeling approach. Environ Sci Technol 48(18):10795-10803, doi: 10.1021/es501997p.

Burton GA, Basu N, Ellis BR, Kapo KE, Entrekin S, Nadelhoffer K. 2014. Hydraulic “Fracking”: are surface water impacts an ecological concern? Environ Toxicol Chem 33 (8): 1679–1689, doi: 10.1002/etc.2619.

Hakala JA. 2014. Use of stable isotopes to identify sources of methane in Appalachian Basin shallow groundwaters: a review. Env Sci Process Impact 16(9):2080-2086, doi: 10.1039/C4EM00140K.

Brantley SL, Yoxtheimer D, Arjmand S, Grieve P, Vidic R, Pollak J, Llewellyn GT, Abad J, Simon C. 2014. Water resource impacts during unconventional shale gas development: the Pennsylvania experience. Int J Coal Geol 126:140-156, doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2013.12.017.

Goodwin S, Carlson K, Knox K, Douglas C, Rein L. 2014. Water intensity assessment of shale gas resources in the Wattenberg Field in Northeastern Colorado. Environ Sci Technol 48(10): 5991-5995, doi: 10.1021/es404675h.

Mauter MS, Alvarez PJ, Burton A, Cafarco DC, Chen W, Gregory KB, Jiang G, Li Q, Pittock J, Reible D, et al. 2014. Regional variation in water-related impacts of shale gas development and implications for emerging international plays. Environ Sci Technol 48(15): 8298-8306, doi: 10.1021/es405432k.

Vengosh A, Jackson RB, Warner N, Darrah TH, Kondash A. 2014. A critical review of the risks to water resources from unconventional shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing in the United States. Environ Sci Technol Lett 48(15): 8334-8348, doi: 10.1021/es405118y.

Kassotis CD, Tillitt DE, Davis JW, Hormann AM, Nagel SC. 2013. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region. Endocrinology 155: 897-907, doi: 10.1210/en.2013-1697.

Nicot JP, Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Costley RA. 2014. Source and fate of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett Shale: a historical perspective. Environ Sci Technol 48(4): 2464-71, doi: 10.1021/es404050r.

Li H, Carlson KH. 2014. Distribution and origin of groundwater methane in the Wattenberg oil and gas field in northern Colorado. Environ Sci Technol 48(3): 1484-1491, doi: 10.1021/es404668b.

Gassiat C, Gleeson T, Lefebvre R, McKenzie J. 2013. Hydraulic fracturing in faulted sedimentary basins: Numerical simulation of potential contamination of shallow aquifers over long time scales. Water Resour Res 49(12):8310-8327, doi: 10.1002/2013WR014287.

Clark CE, Horner RM, Harto CB. 2013. Life cycle water consumption for shale gas and conventional natural gas. Environ Sci Technol 47(20):11829-11836, doi: 10.1021/es4013855.

Warner NR, Kresse TM, Hays PD, Down A, Karr JD, Jackson RB, Vengosh A. 2013. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas. Appl Geochem 35:207-220, doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.04.013.

Fontenot BE, Hunt LR, Hildebrand ZL, Carlton DD, Oka H, Walton JL, Hopkins D, Osorio A, Bjorndal B, Hu QH, Schug KA. 2013. An evaluation of water quality in private drinking water wells near natural gas extraction sites in the Barnett Shale formation. Environ Sci Technol: doi: 10.1021/es4011724.

Heilweil VM, Stolp BJ, Kimball BA, Susong DD, Marston TM, Gardner PM. 2013. A stream-based methane monitoring approach for evaluating groundwater impacts associated with unconventional gas development. Ground Water 51(4): 511-524, doi: 10.1111/gwat.12079.

Sharma S, Mulder ML, Sack A, Schroeder K, Hammack R. 2014. Isotope approach to assess hydrologic connections during Marcellus Shale drilling. Groundwater 52(3):424-433, doi: 10.1111/gwat.12083.

Jackson RE, Gorody AW, Mayer B, Roy JW, Ryan MC, Van Stempvoort DR. 2013. Groundwater protection and unconventional gas extraction: the critical need for field-based hydrogeological research. Groundwater 51(4):488-510, doi: 10.1111/gwat.12074.

Jackson RB, Vengosh A, Darrah TH, Warner NR, Down A, Poreda RJ, Osborn SG, Zhao K, Karr JD. 2013. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction. PNAS 110(28): 11250-11255.

Vidic RD, Brantley SL, Vandenbossche JM, Yoxtheimer D, Abad JD. 2013. Impact of shale gas development on regional water quality. Science 340(6134): 1235009, doi: 10.1126/science.1235009.

Gross SA, Avens HJ, Banducci AM, Sahmel J, Panko JM, Tvermoes BE. 2013. Analysis of BTEX groundwater concentrations from surface spills associated with hydraulic fracturing operations. RJ Air Waste Manage Assoc 63(4): 424-432, doi: 10.1080/10962247.2012.759166.

Murray KE. 2013. State-scale perspective on water use and production associated with oil and gas operations, Oklahoma, U.S. Environ Sci Technol 47(9): 4918-4925, doi: 10.1021/es4000593.

Nicot JP, Scanlon BR. 2012. Water use for shale-gas production in Texas, U.S. Environ Sci Technol 46(6): 3580-3586, doi: 10.1021/es204602t.

Gorody AW. 2012. Factors affecting the variability of stray gas concentration and composition in groundwater. Environmental Geosciences 19(1):17-31, doi: 10.1306/eg.12081111013.

Rozell DJ, Reaven SJ. 2011. Water pollution risk associated with natural gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale. Risk Anal 32(8): 1-12, doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01757.x.

Osborn SG, Vengosh A, Warner NR, Jackson RB. 2011. Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing. PNAS 108(20): 8172-8176, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1100682108.

Zhou Z, Ballentine CJ, Kipfer R, Schoell M, Thibodeaux S. 2005. Noble gas tracing of groundwater/coalbed methane interaction in the San Juan Basin, USA. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69(23):5413-5428, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2005.06.027.

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Ecological

Cozzarelli IM, Skalak KJ, Kent DB, Engle MA, Benthem A, Mumford AC, Haase K, Farag A, Harper D, Nagel SC, et al. 2017. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota. Sci Total Environ doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.157.

Fahrenfeld NL, Delos Reyes H, Eramo A, Akob DM, Mumford AC, Cozzarelli IM. 2016. Shifts in microbial community structure and function in surface waters impacted by unconventional oil and gas wastewater revealed by metagenomics. Sci Total Environ doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.079.

Meng Q. 2016. The impacts of fracking on the environment: a total environmental study paradigm. Sci Total Environ doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.045.

Wood PB, Frantz MW, Becker DA. 2016. Louisiana waterthrush and benthic macroinvertebrate response to shale gas development. J Fish Wildl Manag doi: 10.3996/092015-JFWM-084.

Grant CJ, Lutz AK, Kulig AD, Stanton MR. 2016. Fracked ecology: Response of aquatic trophic structure and mercury biomagnification dynamics in the Marcellus Shale Formation. Ecotoxicology 25(10):1739-1750, doi: 10.1007/s10646-016-1717-8.

Milt AW, Gagnolet TD, Armsworth PR. 2016. The costs of avoiding environmental impacts from shale-gas surface infrastructure. Conserv Biol 30(6):1151-1158, doi: 10.1111/cobi.12766.

Christie KS, Jensen WF, Boyce MS. 2016. Pronghorn resource selection and habitat fragmentation in North Dakota. J Wildl Manage doi: 10.1002/jwmg.21147.

Daly RA, Borton MA, Wilkins MJ, Hoyt DW, Kountz DJ, Wolfe RA, Welch SA, Marcus DN, Trexler RV, MacRae JD, et al. 2016. Microbial metabolisms in a 2.5-km-deep ecosystem created by hydraulic fracturing in shales. Nat Microbiol 1:16146, doi: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.146.

Farwell LS, Wood PB, Sheehan J, George GA. 2016. Shale gas development effects on the songbird community in a central Appalachian forest. Biol Cons 201:78-91, doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2016.06.019.

Colosimo F, Thomas R, Lloyd JR, Taylor KG, Boothman C, Smith AD, Lord R, Kalin RM. 2016. Biogenic methane in shale gas and coal bed methane: a review of current knowledge and gaps. Int J Coal Geol 165:106-120, doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2016.08.011.

Akob DM, Mumford AC, Orem WH, Engle MA, Klinges JG, Kent DB, Cozzarelli IM. 2016. Wastewater disposal from unconventional oil and gas development degrades stream quality at a West Virginia injection facility. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b00428.

Lauer NE, Harkness JS, Vengosh A. 2016. Brine spills associated with unconventional oil development in North Dakota. Environ Sci Technol.10.1021/acs.est.5b06349.

Hopkinson L, Mack B, Streets DA. 2016. Initial study of potential surface water quality impacts of horizontal drilling in the Marcellus shale. Energ Source Part A 38(5):652-660, doi: 10.1080/15567036.2013.813990.

Wallace ZP, Kennedy PL, Squires JR, Oakleaf RJ, Olson LE, Dugger KM. 2016. Re-occupancy of breeding territories by Ferruginous Hawks in Wyoming: relationships to environmental and anthropogenic factors. PLoS One 11(4):e0152977, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152977.

Boothroyd IM, Almond S, Qassim SM, Worrall F, Davies RJ. 2016. Fugitive emissions of methane from abandoned, decommissioned oil and gas wells. Sci Total Environ 547:461-469, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.096.

Hurley T, Chhipi-Shrestha G, Gheisi A, Hewage K, Sadiq R. 2016. Characterizing hydraulic fracturing fluid greenness: application of a hazard-based index approach. Clean Technol Environ Policy 18(3):647-668, doi: 10.1007/s10098-015-1054-2.

Creuzer J, Hargiss CLM, Norland JE, DeSutter T, Casey FX, DeKeyser ES, Ell M. 2016. Does increased road dust due to energy development impact wetlands in the Bakken region? Water Air Soil Poll 227(1):39, doi: 10.1007/s11270-015-2739-1.

Thompson SJ, Johnson DH, Niemuth ND, Ribic CA. 2015. Avoidance of unconventional oil wells and roads exacerbates habitat loss for grassland birds in the North American great plains. Biol Conserv 192:82-90, doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.08.040.

Godwin BL, Albeke SE, Bergman HL, Walters A, Ben-David M. 2015. Density of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in relation to energy development in the Green River Basin, Wyoming. Sci Total Environ 532:780-790, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.058.

Johnson E, Austin BJ, Inlander E, Gallipeau C, Evans-White MA, Entrekin S. 2015. Stream macroinvertebrate communities across a gradient of natural gas development in the Fayetteville shale. Sci Total Environ 530-531: 323-332, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.027.

Entrekin SA, Maloney KO, Kapo KE, Walters AW, Evans-White MA, Klemow KM. 2015. Stream vulnerability to widespread and emergent stressors: a focus on unconventional oil and gas. PLoS One 10(9):e0137416.10.1371/journal.pone.0137416.

Latta SC, Marshall LC, Frantz MW, Toms JD. 2015. Evidence from two shale regions that a riparian songbird accumulates metals associated with hydraulic fracturing. Ecosphere 6(9), doi:10.1890/ES14-00406.1.

Milt AW, Gagnolet T, Armsworth PR. 2015. Synergies and tradeoffs among environmental impacts under conservation planning of shale gas surface infrastructure. Environ Manage doi: 10.1007/s00267-015-0592-z.

Northrup JM, Anderson CR, Wittemyer G. 2015. Quantifying spatial habitat loss from hydrocarbon development through assessing habitat selection patterns of mule deer. Glob Change Biol doi: 10.1111/gcb.13037.

Hethcoat MG, Chalfoun AD. 2015. Toward a mechanistic understanding of human-induced rapid environmental change: A case study linking energy development, nest predation, and predators. Journal Appl Ecol, doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12513.

Kekacs D, Drollette BD, Brooker M, Plata DL, Mouser PJ. 2015. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids. Biodegradation 26(4):271-287, doi: 10.1007/s10532-015-9733-6.

Slonecker ET, Milheim LE. 2015. Landscape disturbance from unconventional and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale Region of Pennsylvania, USA. Environments 2(2): 200-220, doi: 10.3390/environments2020200.

Pierre JP, Abolt CJ, Young MH. 2015. Impacts from above-ground activities in the Eagle Ford Shale Play on landscapes and hydrologic flows, La Salle County, Texas. Environ Manage 55(6):1262-1275, doi: 10.1007/s00267-015-0492-2.

Austin BJ, Hardgrave N, Inlander E, Gallipeau C, Entrekin S, Evans-White MA. 2015. Stream primary producers relate positively to watershed natural gas measures in north-central Arkansas streams. Sci Total Environ 529: 54-64, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.030.

Abrahams LS, Griffin WM, Matthews HS. 2015. Assessment of policies to reduce core forest fragmentation from Marcellus shale development in Pennsylvania. Ecol Indic 52:153-160, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.11.031.

Bern CR, Clark ML, Schmidt TS, Holloway JM, McDougal RR. 2015. Soil disturbance as a driver of increased stream salinity in a semiarid watershed undergoing energy development. Journal of Hydrology 524: 123-136, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.02.020.

Ramirez P, Jr., Mosley SB. 2015. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. Wildlife Refuges: challenges for managers. PLoS One 10(4):e0124085, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124085.

Grant CJ, Weimer AB, Marks NK, Perow ES, Oster JM, Brubaker KM, Trexler RV, Solomon CM, Lamendella R. 2015. Marcellus and mercury: assessing potential impacts of unconventional natural gas extraction on aquatic ecosystems in northwestern Pennsylvania. J Enviro Sci Health, Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering 50(5):482-500, doi: 0.1080/10934529.2015.992670.

Kirol CP, Sutphin AL, Bond L, Fuller MR, Maechtle TL. 2015. Mitigation effectiveness for improving nesting success of greater sage-grouse influenced by energy development. Wildl Biol 21(2):98-109, doi: 10.2981/wlb.00002.

Minnick TJ, Alward RD. 2015. Plant-soil feedbacks and the partial recovery of soil spatial patterns on abandoned well pads in a sagebrush shrubland. Ecol Appl 25(1): 3-10,  doi: 10.1890/13-1698.1.

Moran MD, Cox AB, Wells RL, Benichou CC, McClung MR. 2015. Habitat loss and modification due to gas development in the Fayetteville Shale. Environ Manage doi 10.1007/s00267-014-0440-6.

Brand AB, Wiewel ANM, Grant EHC. 2014. Potential reduction in terrestrial salamander ranges associated with Marcellus shale development. Biol Conserv 180:233-240, doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.10.008.

Trexler R, Solomon C, Brislawn CJ, Wright JR, Rosenberger A, McClure EE, Grube AM, Peterson MP, Keddache M, Mason OU, et al. 2014. Assessing impacts of unconventional natural gas extraction on microbial communities in headwater stream ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania. Front Microbio 5:522, doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00522.

Brittingham MC, Maloney KO, Farag AM, Harper DD, Bowen ZH. 2014. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats. Environ Sci Technol 48(19): 11034-11047, doi: 10.1021/es5020482.

Burton GA, Basu N, Ellis BR, Kapo KE, Entrekin S, Nadelhoffer K. 2014. Hydraulic “Fracking”: are surface water impacts an ecological concern? Environ Toxicol Chem 33 (8): 1679–1689, doi: 10.1002/etc.2619.

Souther S, Tingley MW, Popescu VD, Hayman DTS, Ryan ME, Graves TA, Hartl B, Terrell K. 2014. Biotic impacts of energy development from shale: research priorities and knowledge gaps. Front Ecol Environ 12(6): 330-338, doi: 10.1890/130324.

Buchanan CB, Beck JL, Bills TE, Miller SN. 2014. Seasonal resource selection and distributional response by elk to development of a natural gas field. Rangeland Ecol Manage 67: 369-379, doi: 10.2111/REM-D-13-00136.1.

Farag AM, Harper DD. 2014. A review of environmental impacts of salts from produced waters on aquatic resources. Int J Coal Geol 126:157-161, doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2013.12.006.

Riedl J, Rotter S, Faetsch S, Schmitt-Jansen M, Altenburger R. 2013. Proposal for applying a component-based mixture approach for ecotoxicological assessment of fracturing fluids. Environ Earth Sci 70(8):3907-3920, doi: 10.1007/s12665-013-2320-4.

Papoulias DM, Velasco AL. 2013. Histopathological analysis of fish from Acorn Fork Creek, Kentucky, expossed to hydraulic fracturing fluid releases. Southeast Nat 12(4): 92-111, doi: 10.1656/058.012.s413.

Kiviat E. 2013. Risks to biodiversity from hydraulic fracturing for natural gas in the Marcellus and Utica shales. Ann NY Acad Sci 1286(1):1-14, doi: 10.1111/nyas.12146.

Lendrum PE, Anderson CR Jr, Monteith KL, Jenks JA, Bowyer RT. 2013. Migrating mule deer: effects of anthropogenically altered landscapes. PLoS ONE 8(5): e64548. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064548.

Weltman-Fahs M, Taylor JM. 2013. Hydraulic fracturing and brook trout habitat in the Marcellus Shale region: potential impacts and research needs. Fisheries 38(1): 4-15, doi: 10.1080/03632415.2013.750112.

McBroom M, Thomas T, Zhang Y. 2012. Soil erosion and surface water quality impacts of natural gas development in East Texas, USA. Water 4(4):944-958, doi: 10.3390/w4040944.

Drohan PJ, Brittingham M. 2012. Topographic and soil constraints to shale-gas development in the northcentral Appalachians. Soil Science Society of America Journal 76(5) doi: 10.2136/sssaj2012.0087.

Struchtemeyer CG, Elshahed MS. 2012. Bacterial communities associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids in thermogenic natural gas wells in North Central Texas, USA.FEMS Microbiol Ecol 81(1):13-25, doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01196.x.

Drohan PJ, Brittingham M, Bishop J, Yoder K. 2012. Early trends in landcover change and forest fragmentation due to shale-gas development in Pennsylvania: a potential outcome for the northcentral Appalachians. Environ Manage 49(5):1061-1075, doi: 10.1007/s00267-012-9841-6.

Beckmann JP, Murray K, Seidler RG, Berger J. 2012. Human-mediated shifts in animal habitat use: Sequential changes in pronghorn use of a natural gas field in Greater Yellowstone. Biol Cons 147(1):222-233, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.01.003.

Barber JR, Burdett CL, Reed SE, Warner KA, Formichella C, Crooks KR, Theobald DM, Fristrup KM. 2011. Anthropogenic noise exposure in protected natural areas: estimating the scale of ecological consequences. Landscape ecology 26(9):1281-1295, doi: 10.1007/s10980-011-9646-7.

Entrekin S, Evans-White M, Johnson B, Hagenbuch E. 2011. Rapid expansion of natural gas development poses a threat to surface waters. Fron Ecol Environ 9(9): 503-511, doi: 10.1890/110053.

Gilbert MM, Chalfoun AD. 2011. Energy development affects populations of sagebrush songbirds in Wyoming. J Wildl Manag 75(4): 816-824, doi: 10.1002/jwmg.123.

Adams MB. 2011. Land application of hydrofracturing fluids damages a deciduous forest stand in West Virginia. J Environ Qual 40(4): 1340-1344, doi: 10.2134/jeq2010.0504.

Bergquist E, Evangelista P, Stohlgren TJ, Alley N. 2007. Invasive species and coal bed methane development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Environ Monit Assess 128(1):381-394, doi: 10.1007/s10661-006-9321-7.

Sawyer H, Nielson Rm, Lindzey F, McDonald LL. 2006. Winter habitat selection of mule deer before and during development of a natural gas field. J Wildl Manage 70: 396-403, doi: 10.2193/0022-541X(2006)70[396:WHSOMD]2.0.CO;2.

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Wastewater

Cozzarelli IM, Skalak KJ, Kent DB, Engle MA, Benthem A, Mumford AC, Haase K, Farag A, Harper D, Nagel SC, et al. 2017. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota. Sci Total Environ doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.157.

Elliott EG, Trinh P, Ma X, Leaderer BP, Ward MH, Deziel NC. 2017. Unconventional oil and gas development and risk of childhood leukemia: Assessing the evidence. Sci Total Environ 576:138-147, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.072.

Kondash AJ, Albright E, Vengosh A. 2017. Quantity of flowback and produced waters from unconventional oil and gas exploration. Sci Total Environ 574:314-321, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.069.

He Y, Folkerts EJ, Zhang Y, Martin JW, Alessi DS, Goss GG. 2017. Effects on biotransformation, oxidative stress, and endocrine disruption in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water. Environ Sci Technol 51(2):940-947, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b04695.

Meng M, Chen M, Sanders TK. 2016. Evaluating the feasibility of using produced water from oil and natural gas production to address water scarcity in California’s Central Valley. Sustainability 8(12):1318, doi: 10.3390/su8121318.

Camarillo MK, Domen JK, Stringfellow WT. 2016. Physical-chemical evaluation of hydraulic fracturing chemicals in the context of produced water treatment. J Environ Manage 183, Part 1:164-174, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.065.

Manz KE, Haerr G, Lucchesi J, Carter KE. 2016. Adsorption of hydraulic fracturing fluid components 2-butoxyethanol and furfural onto granular activated carbon and shale rock. Chemosphere 164:585-592, doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.010.

Shrestha N, Chilkoor G, Wilder J, Gadhamshetty V, Stone JJ. 2016. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale. Water Res doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.11.006.

Estrada JM, Bhamidimarri R. 2016. A review of the issues and treatment options for wastewater from shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing. Fuel 182:292-303, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.05.051.

Kahrilas GA, Blotevogel J, Corrin ER, Borch T. 2016. Downhole transformation of the hydraulic fracturing fluid biocide glutaraldehyde: implications for flowback and produced water quality. Environ Sci Technol 50(20):11414-11423, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02881.

Hoelzer K, Sumner AJ, Karatum O, Nelson RK, Drollette BD, O’Connor MP, D’Ambro EL, Getzinger GJ, Ferguson PL, Reddy CM, et al. 2016. Indications of transformation products from hydraulic fracturing additives in shale-gas wastewater. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b00430.

Akob DM, Mumford AC, Orem WH, Engle MA, Klinges JG, Kent DB, Cozzarelli IM. 2016. Wastewater disposal from unconventional oil and gas development degrades stream quality at a West Virginia injection facility. Environ Sci Technol doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b00428.

Engle MA, Reyes FR, Varonka MS, Orem WH, Ma L, Ianno AJ, Schell TM, Xu P, Carroll KC. 2016. Geochemistry of formation waters from the Wolfcamp and “Cline” shales: Insights into brine origin, reservoir connectivity, and fluid flow in the Permian Basin, USA. Chem Geol 425:76-92, doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.01.025.

Kassotis CD, Iwanowicz LR, Akob DM, Cozzarelli IM, Mumford AC, Orem WH, Nagel SC. 2016. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site. Sci Total Environ doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.113.

Lauer NE, Harkness JS, Vengosh A. 2016. Brine spills associated with unconventional oil development in North Dakota. Environ Sci Technol.10.1021/acs.est.5b06349.

Wang L, Burns S, Giammar DE, Fortner JD. 2016. Element mobilization from Bakken shales as a function of water chemistry. Chemosphere 149:286-293,  doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.01.107.

Gaspar J, Davis D, Camacho C, Alvarez PJJ. 2016. Biogenic versus thermogenic H2S source determination in Bakken wells: considerations for biocide application. Environ Sci Technol Lett 3(4):127-132, doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00075.

Thurman EM, Ferrer I, Rosenblum J, Linden K, Ryan JN. 2016. Identification of polypropylene glycols and polyethylene glycol carboxylates in flowback and produced water from hydraulic fracturing. J Hazard Mater doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.02.041.

Horner RM, Harto CB, Jackson RB, Lowry ER, Brandt AR, Yeskoo TW, Murphy DJ, Clark CE. 2016. Water use and management in the Bakken Shale oil play in North Dakota. Environ Sci Technol 50(6):3275-3282, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04079.

Landis MS, Kamal AS, Kovalcik KD, Croghan C, Norris GA, Bergdale A. 2016. The impact of commercially treated oil and gas produced water discharges on bromide concentrations and modeled brominated trihalomethane disinfection byproducts at two downstream municipal drinking water plants in the upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA. Sci Total Environ 542, Part A:505-520, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.074.

Elliott EG, Ettinger AS, Leaderer BP, Bracken MB, Deziel NC. 2016. A systematic evaluation of chemicals in hydraulic-fracturing fluids and wastewater for reproductive and developmental toxicity. J Expos Sci Environ Epidemiol, doi: 10.1038/jes.2015.81.

Zhang X, Sun AY, Duncan IJ. 2016. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty. J Environ Manage 165:188-198, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.09.038.

Kondash A, Vengosh A. 2015. Water footprint of hydraulic fracturing. Environ Sci Technol Lett doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00211.

Phan TT, Capo RC, Stewart BW, Graney JR, Johnson JD, Sharma S, Toro J. 2015. Trace metal distribution and mobility in drill cuttings and produced waters from Marcellus Shale gas extraction: Uranium, arsenic, barium. Appl Geochem 60:89-103, doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.01.013.

Ziemkiewicz PF, He YT. 2015. Evolution of water chemistry during Marcellu Shale gas development: a case study in West Virginia. Chemosphere 134: 224-231, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.04.040.

Zhang T, Hammack RW, Vidic RD. 2015. Fate of radium in Marcellus Shale flowback water impoundments and assessment of associated health risks. Environ Sci Technol  49(15):9347-9354, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01393.

Yao Y, Chen T, Shen SS, Niu Y, DesMarais TL, Linn R, Saunders E, Fan Z, Lioy P, Kluz T, et al. 2015. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 288(1):121-130, doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2015.07.011.

Getzinger GJ, O’Connor MP, Hoelzer K, Drollette BD, Karatum O, Deshusses MA, Ferguson PL, Elsner M, Plata DL. 2015. Natural gas residual fluids: sources, endpoints, and organic chemical composition after centralized waste treatment in Pennsylvania. Environ Sci Technol 49(14):8347-8355, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00471.

Shih J-S, Saiers JE, Anisfeld SC, Chu Z, Muehlenbachs LA, Olmstead SM. 2015. Characterization and analysis of liquid waste from Marcellus Shale gas development. Environ Sci Technol 49(16):9557-9565, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01780.

Nelson AW, Eitrheim ES, Knight AW, May D, Mehrhoff MA, Shannon R, Litman R, Burnett WC, Forbes TZ, Schultz MK. 2015. Understanding the radioactive ingrowth and decay of naturally occurring radioactive materials in the environment: an analysis of produced fluids from the Marcellus Shale. Environ Health Perspect 123:689-696; doi: 10.1289/ehp.1408855.

Lester Y, Ferrer I, Thurman EM, Sitterley KA, Korak JA, Aiken G, Linden KG. 2015. Characterization of hydraulic fracturing flowback water in Colorado: implications for water treatment. Sci Total Environ 512-513: 637-644, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.043.

Haghshenas A, Nasr-El-Din HA. 2014. Effect of dissolved solids on reuse of produced water at high temperature in hydraulic fracturing jobs. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 21:316-325.10.1016/j.jngse.2014.08.013.

Bloomdahl R, Abualfaraj N, Olson M, Gurian PL. 2014. Assessing worker exposure to inhaled volatile organic compounds from Marcellus Shale flowback pits. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 21:348-356, doi:10.1016/j.jngse.2014.08.018.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2014.08.018.

Warner NR, Darrah TH, Jackson RB, Millot R, Kloppmann W, Vengosh A. 2014. New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations. Environ Sci Technol 48(21): 12552-12560, doi: 10.1021/es5032135.

Abualfaraj N, Gurian PL, Olson MS. 2014. Characterization of Marcellus Shale flowback water. Environ Eng Sci 31(9):514-524, doi: 10.1089/ees.2014.0001.

Parker KM, Zeng T, Harkness J, Vengosh A, Mitch WA. 2014. Enhanced formation of disinfection byproducts in shale gas wastewater-impacted drinking water supplies. Environ Sci Technol 48(19): 11161-11169, doi: 10.1021/es5028184.

Manda AK, Heath JL, Klein WA, Griffin MT, Montz BE. 2014. Evolution of multi-well pad development and influence of well pads on environmental violations and wastewater volumes in the Marcellus shale (USA). J Environ Manage 142:36-45, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.04.011.

Thurman EM, Ferrer I, Blotevogel J, Borch T. 2014. Analysis of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced waters using accurate mass: identification of ethoxylated surfactants. Anal Chem 86(19): 9653–9661, doi: 10.1021/ac502163k.

Maguire-Boyle SJ, Barron AR. 2014. 2014. Organic compounds in produced waters from shale gas wells. Environ Sci: Processes Impacts 16(10): 2237-2248, doi: 10.1039/C4EM00376D.

Esswein EJ, Snawder J, King B, Breitenstein M, Alexander-Scott M, Kiefer M. 2014. Evaluation of some potential chemical exposure risks during flowback operations in unconventional oil and gas extraction: preliminary results. J Occup Environ Hyg 11(10): D174-D184, doi: 10.1080/15459624.2014.933960.

Sang W, Stoof CR, Zhang W, Morales VL, Gao B, Kay RW, Liu L, Zhang Y, Steenhuis TS. 2014. Effect of hydrofracking fluid on colloid transport in the unsaturated zone. Environ Sci Technol 48(14):8266-8274, doi: 10.1021/es501441e.

Engle MA, Rowan EL. 2014. Geochemical evolution of produced waters from hydraulic fracturing of the Marcellus Shale, northern Appalachian Basin: A multivariate compositional data analysis approach. Int J Coal Geol 126:45-56, doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2013.11.010.

Skalak KJ, Engle MA, Rowan EL, Jolly GD, Conko KM, Benthem AJ, Kraemer TF. 2014. Surface disposal of produced waters in western and southwestern Pennsylvania: Potential for accumulation of alkali-earth elements in sediments. Int J Coal Geol 126:162-170, doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2013.12.001.

Orem W, Tatu C, Varonka M, Lerch H, Bates A, Engle M, Crosby L, McIntosh J. 2014. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale. Int J Coal Geol 126: 20-31, doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2014.01.003.

Cluff MA, Hartsock A, MacRae JD, Carter K, Mouser PJ. 2014. Temporal changes in microbial ecology and geochemistry in produced water from hydraulically fractured Marcellus Shale gas wells. Environ Sci Technol 48(11):6508-6517.10.1021/es501173p.

Nicot JP, Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Costley RA. 2014. Source and fate of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett Shale: a historical perspective. Environ Sci Technol 48(4): 2464-71, doi: 10.1021/es404050r.

Harkness JS, Dwyer GS, Warner NR, Parker KM, Mitch WA, Vengosh A. 2015. Iodide, bromide, and ammonium in hydraulic fracturing and oil and gas wastewaters: environmental implications. Environ Sci Technol 49(3): 1955-1963, doi: 10.1021/es504654n.

Hladik ML, Focazio MJ, Engle M. 2014. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams. Sci Total Environ 466–467:1085-1093, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.008.

Ziemkiewicz PF, Quaranta JD, Darnell A, Wise R. 2014. Exposure pathways related to shale gas development and procedures for reducing environmental and public risk. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 16: 77-84, doi: 10.1016/j.jngse.2013.11.003.

Murali Mohan A, Hartsock A, Bibby KJ, Hammack RW, Vidic RD, Gregory KB. 2013. Microbial community changes in hydraulic fracturing fluids and produced water from shale gas extraction. Environ Sci Technol 47(22):13141-13150, doi: 10.1021/es402928b.

Warner NR, Christie CA, Jackson RB, Vengosh A. 2013. Impacts of shale gas wastewater disposal on water quality in western Pennsylvania. Environ Sci Technol 47(20): 11849-11857, doi: 10.1021/es402165b.

Rich AL, Crosby EC. 2013. Analysis of reserve pit sludge from unconventional natural gas hydraulic fracturing and drilling operations for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM). New Solut 23(1):117-135, doi: 10.2190/NS.23.1.h.

Olmstead SM, Muehlenbachs LA, Shih J-S, Chu Z, Krupnick AJ. 2013. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania. PNAS 110(13): 4962-4967, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1213871110.

Ferrar KJ, Michanowicz DR, Christen CL, Mulcahy N, Malone SL, Sharma RK. 2013. Assessment of effluent contaminants from three facilities discharging Marcellus Shale wastewater to surface waters in Pennsylvania. Environ Sci Technol 47(7): 3472-81, doi: 10.1021/es301411q.

Shariq L. 2013. Uncertainties associated with the reuse of treated hydraulic fracturing wastewater for crop irrigation. Environ Sci Technol 47(6):2435-2436, doi: 10.1021/es4002983.

Lutz BD, Lewis AN, Doyle MW. 2013. Generation, transport, and disposal of wastewater associated with Marcellus Shale gas development. Water Resour Res 49(2): 647-656, doi: 10.1002/wrcr.20096.

Chapman EC, Capo RC, Stewart BW, Kirby CS, Hammack RW, Schroeder KT, Edenborn HM. 2012. Geochemical and strontium isotope characterization of produced waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction. Environ Sci Technol 46(6): 3545-3553, doi: 10.1021/es204005g.

Alley B, Beebe A, Rodgers Jr J, Castle JW. 2011. Chemical and physical characterization of produced waters from conventional and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Chemosphere 85(1):74-82, doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.05.043.

Gregory KB, Vidic RD, Dzombak DA. 2011. Water management challenges associated with the production of shale gas by hydraulic fracturing. Elements 7(3): 181-186, doi: 10.2113/gselements.7.3.181.

Orem WH, Tatu CA, Lerch HE, Rice CA, Bartos TT, Bates AL, Tewalt S, Corum MD. 2007. Organic compounds in produced waters from coalbed natural gas wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. Appl Geochem 22(10):2240-2256,  doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2007.04.010.

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Geology

Brownlow JW, James SC, Yelderman JC. 2016. Influence of hydraulic fracturing on overlying aquifers in the presence of leaky abandoned wells. Groundwater doi: 10.1111/gwat.12431.

Atkinson GM, Eaton DW, Ghofrani H, Walker D, Cheadle B, Schultz R, Shcherbakov R, Tiampo K, Gu J, Harrington RM, et al. 2016. Hydraulic fracturing and seismicity in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Seismol Res Lett doi: 10.1785/0220150263.

McNamara DE, Hayes GP, Benz HM, Williams RA, McMahon ND, Aster RC, Holland A, Sickbert T, Herrmann R, Briggs R, et al. 2015. Reactivated faulting near Cushing Oklahoma: Increased potential for a triggered earthquake in an area of United States strategic infrastructure. Geophys Res Lett: 2015GL064669, doi: 10.1002/2015GL064669.

Weingarten M, Ge S, Godt JW, Bekins BA, Rubinstein JL. 2015. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity. Science 19 348(6241): 1336-1340, doi: 10.1126/science.aab1345.

Walsh FR, Zoback MD. 2015. Oklahoma’s recent earthquakes and saltwater disposal. Science Advances 1(5), doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1500195.

McGarr A, Bekins B, Burkardt N, Dewey J, Earle P, Ellsworth W, Ge S, Hickman S, Holland A, Majer E, et al. 2015. Coping with earthquakes induced by fluid injection. Science 347(6224):830-831, doi: 10.1126/science.aaa0494.

Rubinstein JL, Ellsworth WL, McGarr AF, Benz HM. 2014. The 2001-Present induced earthquake sequence in the Raton Basin of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 104(5): 2162-2181, doi: 10.1785/0120140009.

Ellsworth WL. 2013. Injection-induced earthquakes. Science 341(6142): doi: 10.1126/science.1225942.

van der Elst NJ, Savage HM, Keranen KM, Abers GA. 2013. Enhanced remote earthquake triggering at fluid-injection sites in the Midwestern United States. Science 314(6142): 164-167, doi: 10.1126/science.1238948.

Keranen KM, Savage HM, Abers GA, Cochran ES. 2013. Potentially induced earthquakes in Oklahoma, USA: links between wastewater injection and the 2011 Mw 5.7 earthquake sequence. Geology doi: 10.1130/G34045.

Myers T. 2012. Potential contaminant pathways from hydraulically fractured shale to aquifers. Ground Water 50: 872-882, doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00933.x.

Warner NR, Jackson RB, Darrah TH, Osborn SG, Down A, Zhao K, White A, Vengosh A. 2012. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania. PNAS 109(30): 11961-11966, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1121181109.

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Policy

Wetherell D, Evensen D. 2016. The insurance industry and unconventional gas development: gaps and recommendations. Energ Policy 94:331-335, doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.04.028.

Konschnik K, Dayalu A. 2016. Hydraulic fracturing chemicals reporting: Analysis of available data and recommendations for policymakers. Energ Policy 88:504-514.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2015.11.002.

Dundon LA, Abkowitz M, Camp J. 2015. The real value of FracFocus as a regulatory tool: A national survey of state regulators. Energ Policy 87:496-504, doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2015.09.031.

Reap E. 2015. The risk of hydraulic fracturing on public health in the UK and the UK's fracking legislation. Environmental Sciences Europe 27(1):27, doi: 10.1186/s12302-015-0059-0.

Howarth R. 2015. Methane emissions and climatic warming risk from hydraulic fracturing and shale gas development: implications for policy. Energy and Emission Control Technologies 3:45-54, doi: 10.2147/EECT.S61539.

Finkel ML, Hays J, Law A. 2015. Unconventional natural gas development and human health: thoughts from the United States. Med J Aust 203(7):294-296, doi:10.5694/mja15.00231.

Wheeler D, MacGregor M, Atherton F, Christmas K, Dalton S, Dusseault M, Gagnon G, Hayes B, MacIntosh C, Mauro I, et al. 2015. Hydraulic fracturing – Integrating public participation with an independent review of the risks and benefits. Energ Policy 85:299-308, doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2015.06.008.

Rahm BG, Vedachalam S, Bertoia LR, Mehta D, Vanka VS, Riha SJ. 2015. Shale gas operator violations in the Marcellus and what they tell us about water resource risks. Energy Policy 82: 1-11, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2015.02.033.

Centner TJ, Eberhart NS. 2015. The use of best management practices to respond to externalities from developing shale gas resources. J Environ Plann Man doi: 10.1080/09640568.2015.1039641.

Clarke CE, Hart PS, Schuldt JP, Evensen DTN, Boudet HS, Jacquet JB, Stedman RC. 2015. Public opinion on energy development: the interplay of issue framing, top-of-mind associations, and political ideology. Energ Policy 81: 131-140, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2015.02.019.

Allred BW, Smith WK, Twidwell D, Haggerty JH, Running SW, Naugle DE, Fuhlendorf SD. 2015. Ecosystem services lost to oil and gas in North America. Science 348(6233): 401-402, doi: 10.1126/science.aaa4785.

McGarr A, Bekins B, Burkardt N, Dewey J, Earle P, Ellsworth W, Ge S, Hickman S, Holland A, Majer E, et al. 2015. Coping with earthquakes induced by fluid injection. Science 347(6224):830-831, doi: 10.1126/science.aaa0494.

Bharadwaj L, Goldstein BD. 2015. Shale gas development in Canada: what are the potential health effects? CMAJ 187(3):E99-100,doi: 10.1503/cmaj.140599.

Small MJ, Stern PC, Bomberg E, Christopherson SM, Goldstein BD, Israel AL, Jackson RB, Krupnick A, Mauter MS, Nash J, et al. 2014. Risks and risk governance in unconventional shale gas development. Environ Sci Technol 48(15):8289-8297, doi: 10.1021/es502111u.

Davis C. 2014. Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy? Environ Sci Technol 48(15):8397-8403, doi: 10.1021/es405095y.

Wiseman, H. 2014. The capacity of state institutions to govern shale gas development risks. Environ Sci Technol  48(15): 8376-7387, doi: 10.1021/es4052582.

Kovats S, Depledge M, Haines A, Fleming LE, Wilkinson P, Shonkoff SB, Scovronick N. 2014. The health implications of fracking. Lancet 383(9919): 757-758, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62700-2.

Konschnik KE, Boling MK. 2014. Shale gas development: a smart regulation framework. Environ Sci Technol 48(15):8404-8416, doi: 10.1021/es405377u.

Brandt AR, Heath GA, Kort EA, O'Sullivan F, Petron G, Jordaan SM, Trans P, Wilcox J, Gopstein AM. Arent D, Wofsy S, Brown NJ, Bradley R, Stucky GD, Eardley D, Harriss R. 2014. Methane leaks from North American natural gas systems. Science 343(6172): 733-735, doi: 10.1126/science.1247045.

de Melo-Martin I, Hays J, Finkel ML. 2014. The role of ethics in shale gas policies. Sci Total Environ 470-471: 1114-1119, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.088.

Centner TJ, O'Connell LK. 2014. Unfinished business in the regulation of shale gas production in the United States. Sci Total Environ 476-477: 359-367, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.112.

Smith MF, Ferguson DP. 2013. “Fracking democracy”: Issue management and locus of policy decision-making in the Marcellus Shale gas drilling debate. Public Relat Rev 39(4):377-386, doi: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2013.08.003.

Mitchell AL, Small M, Casman EA. 2013. Surface water withdrawals for Marcellus Shale gas development: performance of alternative regulatory approaches in the upper Ohio River Basin. Environ Sci Technol 47(22):12669-12678, doi: 10.1021/es403537z.

Down A, Armes M, Jackson RB. 2013. Shale gas extraction in North Carolina: research recommendations and public health implications. Environ Health Perspect 121(10):A292, doi: 10.1289/ehp.1307402.

Finkel ML, Hays J. 2013. The implications of unconventional drilling for natural gas: a global public health concern. Public Health 127(10): 889-893, doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2013.07.005.

Rafferty MA, Limonik E. 2013. Is shale gas drilling an energy solution or public health crisis? Public Health Nursing 30(5):454-462, doi: 10.1111/phn.12036.

Centner TJ. 2013. Oversight of shale gas production in the United States and the disclosure of toxic substances. Resour Policy 38(3): 233-240, doi: 10.1016/j.resourpol.2013.03.001.

Finkel M, Hays J, Law A. 2013. The shale gas boom and the need for rational policy. Am J Public Health 103(7): 1161-1163, doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301285.

Finkel M, Hays J, Law A. 2013. Modern natural gas development and harm to health: the need for proactive public health policies. ISRN Public Health: doi: 10.1155/2013/408658.

Special Issue: Scientific, economic, social, environmental, and health policy concerns related to shale gas extraction. 2013. New Solut 23(1): 215pp.

Mitka M. 2012. Rigorous evidence slim for determining health risks from natural gas fracking. JAMA 307(20):2135-2136, doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.3726.

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Review

Saunders PJ, McCoy D, Goldstein R, Saunders AT, Munroe A. 2016. A review of the public health impacts of unconventional natural gas development. Environ Geochem Health:1-57, doi: 10.1007/s10653-016-9898-x.

Shrestha N, Chilkoor G, Wilder J, Gadhamshetty V, Stone JJ. 2016. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale. Water Res doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.11.006.

Estrada JM, Bhamidimarri R. 2016. A review of the issues and treatment options for wastewater from shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing. Fuel 182:292-303, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.05.051.

Webb E, Hays J, Dyrszka L, Rodriguez B, Cox C, Huffling K, Bushkin-Bedient S. 2016. Potential hazards of air pollutant emissions from unconventional oil and natural gas operations on the respiratory health of children and infants. Rev Environ Health doi: 10.1515/reveh-2014-0070.

Yap NT. 2016. Unconventional shale gas development: challenges for environmental policy and EA practice. Impact Assess Proj Apprais 34(2):97-109, doi: 10.1080/14615517.2016.1176405.

Hays J, Shonkoff SBC. 2016. Toward an understanding of the environmental and public health impacts of unconventional natural gas development: a categorical assessment of the peer-reviewed scientific literature, 2009-2015. PLoS One 11(4):e0154164, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154164.

Annevelink MPJA, Meesters JAJ, Hendriks AJ. 2016. Environmental contamination due to shale gas development. Sci Total Environ 550:431-438, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.131.

Carpenter D. 2016. Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas: impact on health and environment. Rev Environ Health 31(1):47-51, doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0055.

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