The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased neophobia in females in adolescence; decreased impulsive behavior in both sexes in adulthood

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.04 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in arachis oil and fed through a micropipette

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 25 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: adolescence (30-45 days) and adulthood (70 days of age)

Reference [PubMed Link]
Adriani W, Della Seta D, Dessi-Fulgheri F, Farabollini F, Laviola G. 2003. Altered profiles of spontaneous novelty seeking, impulsive behavior, and response to D-amphetamine in rats perinatally exposed to bisphenol A. Environ Health Perspect 111(4):395-401.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased licking duration in females and increased flexing duration in both sexes 0-30 minutes after pain (formalin) injection

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in peanut oil and fed with a pipette

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – gestational day 23 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 20)

Age of measurement: 22 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Aloisi AM, Della Seta D, Rendo C, Ceccarelli I, Scaramuzzino A, Farabollini F. 2002. Exposure to the estrogenic pollutant bisphenol A affects pain behavior induced by subcutaneous formalin injection in male and female rats. Brain Res 937(1-2):1-7.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased play behavior directed towards females in females; decreased sociosexual exploration in males

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in arachis oil and fed with a pipette

Exposure duration: pre-conception day 10 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 35, 45 and 55 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Dessi-Fulgheri F, Porrini S, Farabollini F. 2002. Effects of perinatal exposure to bisphenol A on play behavior of female and male juvenile rats. Environ Health Perspect 110 (suppl 3):403-407.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased hippocampal low-affinity sst2 receptors in the gyrus dentate and increased receptors in the radiatum lacunosum CA1 layer

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40 or 400 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in arachis oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 10 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 31)

Age of measurement: 10 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Facciolo RM, Alo R, Madeo M, Canonaco M, Dessi-Fulgheri F. 2002. Early cerebral activities of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A appear to act via the somatostatin receptor subtype sst2. Environ Health Perspect 110 (suppl 3):397-402.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased low-affinity sst2 receptors in the basomedial nucleus of the amygdala

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40 or 400 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in arachis oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 10 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 31)

Age of measurement: 10 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Facciolo RM, Alo R, Madeo M, Canonaco M, Dessi-Fulgheri F. 2002. Early cerebral activities of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A appear to act via the somatostatin receptor subtype sst2. Environ Health Perspect 110 (suppl 3):397-402.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased hippocampal high-affinity sst2 receptors in the gyrus dentate and decreased low affinity sst2 receptors in the radiatum lacunosum CA1 layer

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40 or 400 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in arachis oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 23 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 23 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Facciolo RM, Alo R, Madeo M, Canonaco M, Dessi-Fulgheri F. 2002. Early cerebral activities of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A appear to act via the somatostatin receptor subtype sst2. Environ Health Perspect 110 (suppl 3):397-402.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased low-affinity sst2 receptors in the cortico-medial nucleus and decreased high-affinity sst2 receptors in the basaomedial nucleus of the amygdala

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40 or 400 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in arachis oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 23 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 23 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Facciolo RM, Alo R, Madeo M, Canonaco M, Dessi-Fulgheri F. 2002. Early cerebral activities of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A appear to act via the somatostatin receptor subtype sst2. Environ Health Perspect 110 (suppl 3):397-402.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased anxiety in males and decreased motor activity and exploration in females

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in arachis oil and fed through a micropipette

Exposure duration: pre-conception day 10 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 85 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Farabollini F, Porrini S, Dessi-Fulgherit F. 1999. Perinatal exposure to the estrogenic pollutant bisphenol A affects behavior in male and female rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior 64(4):687-694.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased sexual motivation and receptive behavior in females; decreased sexual performance and increased defensive elements in males

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in arachis oil and fed with a pipette

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – gestational day 23 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 20)

Age of measurement: 100 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Farabollini F, Porrini S, Della Seta D, Bianchi F, Dessi-Fulgheri F. 2002. Effects of perinatal exposure to bisphenol A on sociosexual behavior of female and male rats. Environ Health Perspect 110 (suppl 3):409-413.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Reversed sex differences in the volume and cell number of the locus coeruleus

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 30 or 300 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: 0.1 or 1 mg/L in water; intake not reported

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through 6 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kubo K, Arai O, Omura M, Watanabe R, Ogata R, Aou S. 2003. Low dose effects of bisphenol A on sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior in rats. Neurosci Res 45(3):345-356.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Induced memory impairment

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 30 ng/g diet

Other doses tested: 2 mg/g diet

Route of administration: fed in admixed powder food

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 19 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 11 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miyagawa K, Narita M, Narita M, Akama H, Suzuki T. 2007. Memory impairment associated with a dysfunction of the hippocampal cholinergic system induced by prenatal and neonatal exposures to bisphenol-A. Neurosci Lett 418(3):236-241.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased BrdU-labeled cells (analyzed 2 days after injection) in the ventricular zone at 15 and 17 days and increased in the cortical plate at 15 days; gene expression was also either up- or down-regulated depending on the gene and the measurement time point

Subjects: ICR/Jcl mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 20 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: injected subcutaneously

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – gestational day 16.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 13, 15, 17 and 19 days post-fertilization

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nakamura K, Itoh K, Yaoi T, Fujiwara Y, Sugimoto T, Fushiki S. 2006. Murine neocortical histogenesis is perturbed by prenatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A. J Neurosci Res 84(6):1197-1205.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased choline acetyltransferase-like immunoreactivity in the hippocampus

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 30 ng/g diet

Other doses tested: 2 mg/g diet

Route of administration: fed in admixed powder food

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 19 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 11 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miyagawa K, Narita M, Narita M, Akama H, Suzuki T. 2007. Memory impairment associated with a dysfunction of the hippocampal cholinergic system induced by prenatal and neonatal exposures to bisphenol-A. Neurosci Lett 418(3):236-241.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Abnormal thalamocortical and corticothamalic projections at 3 and 12 weeks of age

Subjects: ICR/Jcl mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 20 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: injected subcutaneously

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – gestational day 16.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 3 and 12 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nakamura K, Itoh K, Sugimoto T, Fushiki S. 2007. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A affects adult murine neocortical structure. Neurosci Lett 420(2):100-105.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased BrdU-positive cells (labeled on day 15) in cortical layers V and VI at 3 weeks of age but not 12 weeks

Subjects: ICR/Jcl mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 20 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: injected subcutaneously

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – gestational day 16.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 3 through 12 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nakamura K, Itoh K, Sugimoto T, Fushiki S. 2007. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A affects adult murine neocortical structure. Neurosci Lett 420(2):100-105.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Epigenetic alterations in promoter-associated CpG islands

Subjects: ICR/Jcl mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 20 μg/kg bw/dy

Route of administration: dissolved in sesame oil and delivered through subcutaneous injection

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – gestational day 12.5 and 14.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: gestational day 12.5 and 14.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Yaoi T, Itoh K, Nakamura K, Ogi H, Fujiwara Y, Fushiki S. 2008. Genome-wide analysis of epigenomic alterations in fetal mouse forebrain after exposure to low doses of bisphenol A. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 376(3):563-567.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased number of entries during Y-maze task (exploration), particularly among females; decreased novel arm discrimination and spatial recognition memory; altered coping skills among females

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: delivered orally (on cornflakes)

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 19 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adolescence

Reference [PubMed Link]
Poimenova A, Markaki E, Rahiotis C, Kitraki E. 2010 May 19. Corticosterone-regulated actions in the rat brain are affected by perinatal exposure to low dose of bisphenol A. Neuroscience 167(3):741-9.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased hippocampal GR corticosteroid receptors in females compared to males

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: delivered orally (on cornflakes)

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 19 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adolescence

Reference [PubMed Link]
Poimenova A, Markaki E, Rahiotis C, Kitraki E. 2010 May 19. Corticosterone-regulated actions in the rat brain are affected by perinatal exposure to low dose of bisphenol A. Neuroscience 167(3):741-9.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased distance moved (i.e. motor activity) in the open field test in both males and females at post-natal week 10. In the elevated plus maze, distance moved was decreased in both females and males on post-natal day 24-26.

Subjects: ICR/Jcl mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 20.0 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in sesame oil and delivered subcutaneously

Exposure duration: embryronic day 0 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 21-22 and post-natal week 10

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nakamura K, Itoh K, Dai H, Han L, Wang X, Kato S, Sugimoto T, Fushiki S. 2012. Prenatal and lactational exposure to low-doses of bisphenol A alters adult mice behavior. Brain Dev 34(1):57-63.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased expression of Scl1a1 mRNA in females and decreased expression of oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) mRNA in males at gestational day 18.5. BPA exposure decreased expression of Dnmt1 mRNA and increased Dnmt3 mRNA expression in females at gestational day 18.5.

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.25 mg/kg (1.25 mg/kg feed)

Route of administration: delivered in feed daily

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 0 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 14)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18 and post-natal days 21, 22, 24

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wolstenholme JT, Taylor JA, Shetty SR, Edwards M, Connelly JJ, Rissman EF. 2011. Gestational exposure to low dose bisphenol A alters social behavior in juvenile mice. PLoS One 6(9):e25448.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased self grooming and increased side by side interaction and follow behaviors in females on post-natal day 21. Males and females had increased nose-nose sniffing and approach behaviors during a 30 minute social interaction on post-natal day 21.

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.25 mg/kg (1.25 mg/kg feed)

Route of administration: delivered in feed daily

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 0 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 14)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18 and post-natal days 21, 22, 24

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wolstenholme JT, Taylor JA, Shetty SR, Edwards M, Connelly JJ, Rissman EF. 2011. Gestational exposure to low dose bisphenol A alters social behavior in juvenile mice. PLoS One 6(9):e25448.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased sort-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) latencies in males exposed during lactation only and in males exposed during gestation through lactation. STM and LTM latencies were also decreased in females exposed during gestation through lactation. The number of crossings in the open field test was reduced in males exposed during lactation and during gestation through lactation. Reduced STM and LTM in the object recognition assay in mice exposed during gestation through lactation. In the Morris Water Maze test there were alterations in path length, velocity, and latency in BPA exposed mice.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40.0 μ/g/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and adminstered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal week 16

Reference [PubMed Link]
Goncalves CR, Cunha RW, Barros DM, Martinez PE. 2010. Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A on behavior and memory in rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 30(2):195-201.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased avoidance response and increased failure of avoidance at 15 weeks; lack of increase in locomotion and decreased number of rearing behavoirs in response to Tcy injection at 22-24 weeks

Subjects: F344/N rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.1 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 3 – post-natal day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 15 and 22-24 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Negishi T, Kawasaki K, Suzaki S, Maeda H, Ishii Y, Kyuwa S, Kuroda Y, Yoshikawa Y. 2004. Behavioral alterations in response to fear-provoking stimuli and tranylcypromine induced by perinatal exposure to bisphenol A and nonylphenol in male rats. Environ Health Perspect 112:1159-1164.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased anxiety at the higher dose in females

Subjects: C57/Bl-6 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 or 200 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 3 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 6 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ryan BC, Vandenbergh JG. 2006. Developmental exposure to environmental estrogens alters anxiety and spatial memory in female mice. Hormones & Behavior 50(1):85-93.