The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Up-regulated expression of RC3/Neurogranin in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 1 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10 and 50 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: fed on a wafer

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – post-natal day 15 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 36)

Age of measurement: 15 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Zoeller RT, Bansal R, Parris C. 2005. Bisphenol-A, an environmental contaminant that acts as a thyroid hormone receptor antagonist in vitro, increases serum thyroxine and alters RC3/neurogranin expression in the developing rat brain. Endocrinology 146(2):607-612.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased activity per session in open field activity assessment in males exposed to both 2.5 and 25 μg/kg. Males exposed to 25.0 μg/kg had longer startle latency; those exposed to 2.5 μg/kg had less than average startle when compared to controls.

Subjects: Sprague Dawley rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2.5 or 25.0 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in CMC and administered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 26-29, 40-42, 43-44, 47-50, and 58-69

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ferguson SA, Law CD, Abshire JS. 2012. Developmental treatment with bisphenol A causes few alterations on measures of postweaning activity and learning. Neurotoxicol Teratol 34(6):598-606.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased RARα mRNA expression in the cerebra of embryos assessed on day 14.5; also decreased RXRα mRNA in male cerebra at 12.5 days

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 17.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: gestational days 12.5, 14.5, 16.5 and 18.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Manabe N, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Miyamoto H. 2003. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on expression of RARalpha and RXRalpha mRNAs in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 49(6):539-545.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased RARα mRNA and decreased RXRα mRNA expression in the cerebella of embryos assessed on day 12.5; also decreased RXRα mRNA in female cerebella at 14.5 and 18.5 days

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 17.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: gestational days 12.5, 14.5, 16.5 and 18.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Manabe N, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Miyamoto H. 2003. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on expression of RARalpha and RXRalpha mRNAs in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 49(6):539-545.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased AhR and RXRα mRNA expression at low (0.02 μg/kg) and high (200 μg/kg) doses in the cerebra, but not middle dose; increased RARα mRNA at higher dose (200 μg/kg) only.

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.02, 2 or 200 μg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 20,000 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 13.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: gestational day 14.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Manabe N. 2005. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on mRNA expression of arylhydrocarbon and retinoid receptors in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 51(3):315-324.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased AhR mRNA expression at low (0.02 μg/kg) and high (200 μg/kg) doses in the cerebra, but not middle dose; increased RARα and RXRα at higher (200 μg/kg) dose only.

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.02, 2 or 200 μg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 20,000 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 17.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Manabe N. 2005. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on mRNA expression of arylhydrocarbon and retinoid receptors in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 51(3):315-324.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased AhR and RXRα mRNA expression in the cerebella at low (0.02 μg/kg) and high (200 μg/kg) doses, but not middle dose; increased RARα at lowest dose only.

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.02, 2 or 200 μg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 20,000 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 13.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: gestational day 14.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Manabe N. 2005. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on mRNA expression of arylhydrocarbon and retinoid receptors in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 51(3):315-324.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased AhR and RARα mRNA expression in the cerebella at low (0.02 μg/kg) and high (200 μg/kg) doses, but not middle dose.

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.02, 2 or 200 μg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 20,000 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 17.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Manabe N. 2005. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on mRNA expression of arylhydrocarbon and retinoid receptors in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 51(3):315-324.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Reduced cross-over latency time in the passive avoidance assay in F2 mice of F0 exposed to 1.0 mg/kg

Subjects: C57BL/6 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered intraperitoneally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 42, 44, 56, 63 and 65 (F2 generation)

Reference [PubMed Link]
Jang YJ, Park HR, Kim TH, Yang WJ, Lee JJ, Choi SY, Oh SB, Lee E, Park JH, Kim HP, Kim HS, Lee J. 2012. High dose bisphenol A impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in female mice across generations. Toxicology 296(1-3):73-82.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Reduced hippocampal phospho-ERK in F2 mice of F0 exposed to 1.0 mg/kg

Subjects: C57BL/6 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered intraperitoneally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 42, 44, 56, 63 and 65 (F2 generation)

Reference [PubMed Link]
Jang YJ, Park HR, Kim TH, Yang WJ, Lee JJ, Choi SY, Oh SB, Lee E, Park JH, Kim HP, Kim HS, Lee J. 2012. High dose bisphenol A impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in female mice across generations. Toxicology 296(1-3):73-82.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Females swam faster than males in control mice, but not among exposed mice. Males exposed to 5.0 μg/kg swam faster than controls in the Morris water maze. Females exposed to 500.0 μg/kg had an alteration in the number of fecal boli deposited during the elevated plus maze whereby producing more than all other groups. Increase in the %OAE in the 5.0 μg/kg group with the 5.0 μg/kg males traveling more in the EPM.

Subjects: Long-Evans rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 5.0, 50.0 or 500.0 μg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 5000.0 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delievered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 7 – post-natal day 14 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 35)

Age of measurement: between post-natal days 90-150

Reference [PubMed Link]
Jones BA, Watson NV. 2012. Perinatal BPA exposure demasculinizes males in measures of affect but has no effect on water maze learning in adulthood. Horm Behav 61(4):605-610.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased escape length in post-natal day 56 males exposed to 0.5 mg/kg and a decreased amount of time spent in the target quadrant once the platform was removed in post-natal day 21 and 56 males exposed to 0.5 mg/kg.

Subjects: ICR mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.05, 0.5 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 5.0 and 50.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in sesame oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 7 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 21 and 56

Reference [PubMed Link]
Xu XH, Zhang J, Wang YM, Ye YP, Luo QQ. 2010. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol-A impairs learning-memory by concomitant down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors of hippocampus in male offspring mice. Horm Behav 58(2):326-333.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

On post-natal day 21 hippocampal NR1 protein levels were decreased in males exposed to 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg and NR2B protein levels were decreased in males exposed to 0.5 mg/kg. Decreased hippocampal NR1, NR2A, and NR2B protein levels in males exposed to both 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg. In addition, ERβ protein levels were decreased in males exposed to 0.5 mg/kg

Subjects: ICR mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.05, 0.5 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 5.0 and 50.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in sesame oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 7 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 21 and 56

Reference [PubMed Link]
Xu XH, Zhang J, Wang YM, Ye YP, Luo QQ. 2010. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol-A impairs learning-memory by concomitant down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors of hippocampus in male offspring mice. Horm Behav 58(2):326-333.