The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Reduced or reversed sex differences in explorative and emotional behaviors

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 10 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – post-natal day 8 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to day 1 of week 26)

Age of measurement: prepuberty (30 days) and adulthood (70 days)

Reference [PubMed Link]
Gioiosa L, Fissore E, Ghirardelli G, Parmigiani S, Palanza P. 2007. Developmental exposure to low-dose estrogenic endocrine disruptors alters sex differences in exploration and emotional responses in mice. Hormones & Behavior 52(3):307-16.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased aggressive behavior in males at 8 weeks of age only (note no difference in serum testosterone concentrations)

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 or 20 ng/g bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and fed through a micropipette

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kawai K, Nozaki T, Nishikata H, Takii M, Kubo C. 2003. Aggressive behavior and serum testosterone concentration during the maturation process of male mice: The effects of fetal exposure to bisphenol A. Environ Health Perspect 111(2):175-178.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased expression of estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ in the dorsal raphe nucleus of males at 5 and 13 weeks after birth, but not at 9 weeks.

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 ng/g bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and fed through a micropipette

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 5, 9 and 13 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kawai K, Murakami S, Senba E, Yamanaka T, Fujiwara Y, Arimura C, Nozaki T, Takii M, Kubo C. 2007. Changes in estrogen receptors alpha and beta expression in the brain of mice exposed prenatally to bisphenol A. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology 47(2):166-170.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased amphetamine-induced conditioned place-preference in females

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 10 μg/kg bw/dy

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and fed without handling

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – gestational day 18 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: in adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Palanza P, Gioiosa L, vom Saal FS, Parmigiani S. 2008 Oct. Effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A on brain and behavior in mice. Environ Res 108(2):150-7.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased risk assessment behaviors in a novelty test in pre-pubertal females; decreased sex differences in free-exploratory open field behaviors and elevated-plus-maze behaviors in adults

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 10 μg/kg bw/dy

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and fed without handling

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – post-natal day 8 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to day 1 of week 26)

Age of measurement: pre-puberty through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Palanza P, Gioiosa L, vom Saal FS, Parmigiani S. 2008 Oct. Effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A on brain and behavior in mice. Environ Res 108(2):150-7.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased time to copulation in males in three generations

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 1.2 or 2.4 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered via gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 12 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Salian S, Doshi T, Vanage G. 2009. Perinatal exposure of rats to Bisphenol A affects the fertility of male offspring. Life Sci 85(21-22):742-752.