The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased mounting and intromission latency at low and high doses but not middle dose

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.025, 0.060, 0.3 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: Initial dose was followed by weekly maintenance doses (at 20 percent)

Route of administration: injected subcutaneously

Exposure duration: pre-conception – post-natal day 22 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Faqi AS, Chahoud I. 1998. Antiestrogenic effects of low doses of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in offspring of female rats exposed throughout pregnancy and lactation. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 61(4):462-469.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased motor activity at 0.053 μg/kg

Subjects: Wistar(Han) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.0028, 0.0093 or 0.053 μg/kg/day

Route of administration: delivered in daily diet

Exposure duration: 12 weeks prior to mating – birth (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through 120 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Bell DR, Clode S, Fan MQ, Fernandes A, Foster PMD, Jiang T, Loizou G, Macnicoll A, Miller BG, Rose M, Tran L, White S. 2007. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the developing male Wistar(Han) rat. II: Chronic dosing causes developmental delay. Toxicol Sci 99(1):224-233.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased ratio of brain weight to body weight at 120 days of age at 0.0093 and 0.053 μg/kg/day

Subjects: Wistar(Han) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.0028, 0.0093 or 0.053 μg/kg/day

Route of administration: delivered in daily diet

Exposure duration: 12 weeks prior to mating – birth (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through 120 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Bell DR, Clode S, Fan MQ, Fernandes A, Foster PMD, Jiang T, Loizou G, Macnicoll A, Miller BG, Rose M, Tran L, White S. 2007. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the developing male Wistar(Han) rat. II: Chronic dosing causes developmental delay. Toxicol Sci 99(1):224-233.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased number of serotonin immunoreactive neurons in the dorsalo raphe nucleus (dorsalis), the median raphe nucleus (medianus), the supralemniscal area (B9), and the nucleus raphe magnus (magnus)

Subjects: ddY mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.0392 or 3.92 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: 8 weeks prior to pregnancy – pregnancy (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 42 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kuchiiwa S, Cheng SB, Nagatomo I, Akasaki Y, Uchida M, Tominaga M, Hashiguchi W, Kuchiiwa T. 2002. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin decreases serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in raphe nuclei of male mouse offspring. Neurosci Lett 317(2):73-76.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased nuclear RNA levels of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (Hnrph1) and nucleophosmin 1 (Npm1) at 1 hour in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF); increased nuclear RNA levels of b-cell translocation gene 2 (Btg 2) and early growth response transcripts 1, 2, and 3 (Egr 1, 2, 3) at 1 hour in MEF; decreased cytoplasmic RNA level of AhR at 1 and 2 hours; increased cytoplasmic RNA levels of ADP-ribosylation factor -4 like (Arfl 4), cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 (CYP1A1) and (CYP1B1), and TCDD-inducible poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (Tiparp) at 1 and 2 hours in MEF

Subjects: C57BL/6 mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 10 nM

Route of administration: in vitro culture

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 1)

Age of measurement: 1 and 2 hours in culture

Reference [PubMed Link]
Schwanekamp JA, Sartor MA, Karyala S, Halbleib D, Medvedovic M, Tomlinson CR. 2006. Genome-wide analyses show that nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA levels are differentially affected by dioxin. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Gene Structure and Expression 1759(8-9):388-402.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased luciferase activity at 24 hours culture at 10 nM TCDD in undifferentiated embryonic mouse carcinoma (ECC) P19 stem cells transfected with an XRE-reporter gene; increased cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA expression in P19 stem cells at 2 hours culture at 1.0 nM; increased CYP1A1 mRNA expression at 1 through 24 hours and 2 through 5 days at 10.0 nM; decreased (inhibited) CYP1A1 mRNA activity at 10 nM TCDD in the presence of 0.1 and 1.0 and 100 μM alpha-napthoflavone; decreased mitochondrial activity in P19 stem cells at 2 hours culture at 10.0 nM; decreased glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT1) mRNA and GLUT3 mRNA in plasma membrane fraction of P19 stem cells at 5, 15, and 25 hours at 10.0 nM

Subjects: C3H/He, undifferentiated P19 embryonic carcinoma cells mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1,1.0, or 10.0 nM

Other doses tested: 100 nM

Route of administration: in vitro culture

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 3)

Age of measurement: 1 hour through 5 days in culture

Reference [PubMed Link]
Tonack S, Kind K, Thompson JG, Wobus AM, Fischer B, Santos AN. 2007. Dioxin affects glucose transport via the arylhydrocarbon receptor signal cascade in pluripotent embryonic carcinoma cells. Endocrinology 148(12):5902-5912.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased expression of CYP1A1 mRNA at blastocyst stage at 10.0 nM

Subjects: ICR mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, or 10.0 nM

Route of administration: in vitro culture

Exposure duration: 1-cell stage of preimplantation embryos – blastocyst stage of preimplantation embryos (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 2)

Age of measurement: blastocyst stage

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wu Q, Ohsako S, Baba T, Miyamoto K, Tohyama C. 2002. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on preimplantation mouse embryos. Toxicology 174(2):119-129.