The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased turning latency in males and females at 8 to 12 days of age; increased avoidance latency in males at 31 through 44 days of age; decreased spontaneous activity during the inter-trial interval in males at 31 through 44 days of age

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: additional doses given daily for 10 days

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 9 – gestational day 19 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: gestational day 19 through 44 days of age

Reference
Nishijo M, Kuriwaki JI, Hori E, Tawara K, Nakagawa H, Nishijo H. 2007. Effects of maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on fetal brain growth and motor and behavioral development in offspring rats. Toxicol Lett 173(1):41-47.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased whole brain weight and ratio of cerebral cortex to whole brain at gestational day 19; increased ratio of brain weight to body weight and ratio of forebrain without cerebral cortex to whole brain weight at gestational day 19

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: additional doses given daily for 10 days

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 9 – gestational day 19 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: gestational day 19 through 44 days of age

Reference
Nishijo M, Kuriwaki JI, Hori E, Tawara K, Nakagawa H, Nishijo H. 2007. Effects of maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on fetal brain growth and motor and behavioral development in offspring rats. Toxicol Lett 173(1):41-47.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased errors in the radial arm maze

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.25 or 1.0 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – gestational day 16 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: in adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Schantz SL, Seo BW, Moshtaghian J, Peterson RE, Moore RW. 1996. Effects of gestational and lactational exposure to TCDD or coplanar PCBs on spatial learning. Neurotoxicology & Teratology 18(3):305-313.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased errors in the radial arm maze in males but not females; increased trials to reach criterion on the first and second reversals in the visual discrimination reversal learning task

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – gestational day 16 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through 80 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Seo BW, Sparks AJ, Medora K, Amin S, Schantz SL. 1999. Learning and memory in rats gestationally and lactationally exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Neurotoxicology & Teratology 21(3):231-239.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased saccharin consumption and preference (sexually dimorphic behaviors) in females

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.025 or 0.10 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – gestational day 16 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Amin S, Moore RW, Peterson RE, Schantz SL. 2000. Gestational and lactational exposure to TCDD or coplanar PCBs alters adult expression of saccharin preference behavior in female rats. Neurotoxicology & Teratology 22(5):675-682.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased errors in the eight-arm radial arm maze among males at 0.1 μg/kg

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1 or 0.2 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – gestational day 16 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through young adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Seo BW, Powers BE, Widholm JJ, Schantz SL. 2000. Radial arm maze performance in rats following gestational and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Neurotoxicology & Teratology 22(4):511-519.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased number of errors to criterion on visual reversal learning (RL) task for females at reversal number 2; increased number of trials in chance phase for females at reversal number 3

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1 μg/kg bw on gestational days 10 through 16

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – last dose on gestational day 16 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through 220 days

Reference [PubMed Link]
Widholm JJ, Seo BW, Strupp BJ, Seegald RF, Schantz SL. 2003. Effects of perinatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on spatial and visual reversal learning in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol 25(4):459-471.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased percentage of eyes opened at 11 through 15 days of age

Subjects: Line C (highly sensitive to TCDD) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: 40 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miettinen HM, Alaluusua S, Tuomisto J, Viluksela M. 2002. Effect of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure on rat molar development: The role of exposure time. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 184(1):57-66.