The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased working memory errors for AhR +/- (heterozygote) female genotype in radial arm maze at 90 through 132 days of age

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 5.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 13 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 90 through 132 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Powers BE, Lin TM, Vanka A, Peterson RE, Juraska JM, Schantz SL. 2005. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure alters radial arm maze performance and hippocampal morphology in female AhR(+/-) mice. Genes Brain and Behavior 4(1):51-59.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased relative size of intra-pyramidal and infra-pyramidal mossy fiber (IIP-MF) in hippocampus of female AhR +/- (heterozygote) genotype at 132 days of age

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 5.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 13 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 90 through 132 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Powers BE, Lin TM, Vanka A, Peterson RE, Juraska JM, Schantz SL. 2005. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure alters radial arm maze performance and hippocampal morphology in female AhR(+/-) mice. Genes Brain and Behavior 4(1):51-59.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased time to first intromission and increased intromission number (in males); decreased lordosis in castrated males injected with ovarian steroids

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.7 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Bjerke DL, Brown TJ, MacLusky NJ, Hochberg RB, Peterson RE. 1994. Partial demasculinization and feminization of sex behavior in male rats by in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is not associated with alterations in estrogen receptor binding or volumes of sexually differentiated brain nuclei. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 127(2):258-267.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased brain weight

Subjects: Long Evans hooded rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: in late adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Gray LE, Kelce WR, Monosson E, Ostby JS, Birnbaum LS. 1995. Exposure to TCDD during development permanently alters reproductive function in male Long Evans rats and hamsters: Reduced ejaculated and epididymal sperm numbers and sex accessory gland weights in offspring with normal androgenic status. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 131(1):108-118.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased number of mounts with and without intromission; increased latency to ejaculate

Subjects: Long Evans Hooded rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Gray LE, Wolf C, Mann P, Ostby JS. 1997. In utero exposure to low doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters reproductive development of female Long Evans Hooded rat offspring. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 146(2):237-244.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased percent with onset of eye opening at 14 and 15 days

Subjects: Long Evans Hooded rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.05, 0.20 or 0.80 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Gray LE Jr., Ostby JS, Kelce WR. 1997. A dose-response analysis of the reproductive effects of a single gestational dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in male Long Evans Hooded rat offspring. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 146(1):11-20.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased accuracy and increased errors of responding during the delay interval in a two-lever chamber of food reinforcement in the 0.18 μg/kg bw group

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.06, 0.18, 0.54 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: in adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Markowski VP, Cox C, Preston R, Weiss B. 2002. Impaired cued delayed alternation behavior in adult rat offspring following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on gestation day 15. Neurotoxicology & Teratology 24(2):209-218.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies at all doses; decreased copulatory rates at three highest doses; increased postejaculatory interval at highest dose; increased frequency and intensity of lordosis in castrated males given progesterone and estradiol benzoate

Subjects: Not specified rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.064, 0.16, 0.40 or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 60, 75 and 115 days of age

Reference
Peterson RE, Mably TA, Moore RW, Goy RW. 1992. In utero and lactational exposure of male rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: Effects on sexual behavior and the regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion in adulthood. Chemosphere 25(1-2):157-160.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased and increased motor activity at various light/dark phases at different ages

Subjects: Long-Evans rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg

Route of administration: delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 3 months of age through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Gordon CJ, Miller DB. 1998. Thermoregulation in rats exposed perinatally to dioxin - core temperature stability to altered ambient temperature, behavioral thermoregulation, and febrile response to lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health. Part A 54(8):647-662.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased brain weight at 1.0 μg/kg at 120 days of age

Subjects: Wistar(Han) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.05, 0.20, or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: birth through 120 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Bell DR, Clode S, Fan MQ, Fernandes A, Foster PMD, Jiang T, Loizou G, Macnicoll A, Miller BG, Rose M, Tran L, White S. 2007. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the developing male Wistar(Han) rat. I: No decrease in epididymal sperm count after a single acute dose. Toxicol Sci 99(1):214-223.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased Lordosis quotient by lactational, and in-utero and lactational exposure, among castrated males injected with progesterone

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 (and cross-fostered at birth) – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: birth through 140 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Bjerke DL, Peterson RE. 1994. Reproductive toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in male-rats - different effects of in utero versus lactational exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 127(2):241-249.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased water consumption and saccharin consumption in 12 week old males at 0.2 μg/kg

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.2 or 0.8 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 2 through 84 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ikeda M, Mitsui T, Setani K, Tamura M, Kakeyama M, Sone H, Tohyama C, Tomita T. 2005. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats disrupts brain sexual differentiation. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 205(1):98-105.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased freezing time (cessaton of all but respiratory movement) in males after contextual fear conditioning

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 12 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Mitsui T, Sugiyama N, Maeda S, Tohyama C, Arita J. 2006. Perinatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin suppresses contextual fear conditioning-accompanied activation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal CA1 region of male rats. Neurosci Lett 398(3):206-210.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased percentage of phosphorylated CREB-immunoreactive (pCREB-ir) neurons in the CA1 hippocampal sub-region of males after contextual fear conditioning

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 12 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Mitsui T, Sugiyama N, Maeda S, Tohyama C, Arita J. 2006. Perinatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin suppresses contextual fear conditioning-accompanied activation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal CA1 region of male rats. Neurosci Lett 398(3):206-210.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased stimulus-evoked and spontaneous activity in barrel field cortex at 0.7μg/kg; decreased cerebrocortical expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor sub-units NMSA NR2B mRNA relative to β-actin RNA and 18s RNA at various times up to 100 days at 0.1 and 0.7μg/kg; decreased cerebrocortical expression of AMPA GluR1 mRNA relative to 18s RNA at 30 and 240 days at 0.7μg/kg; increased cerebrocortical expression of NMDA NR2A mRNA relative to 18s RNA between days 5 and 30 at 0.1 and 0.7μg/kg

Subjects: Long Evans Hooded rat

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1 or 0.7 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: day 5 through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Hood DB, Woods L, Brown L, Johnson S, Ebner FF. 2006. Gestational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure effects on sensory cortex function. Neurotoxicology 27(6):1032-1042.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased sex ratio of brain aromatase activity at 2 days of age at 0.2 μg/kg; decreased volume of sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in 12 week old males at 0.2 μg/kg

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.2 or 0.8 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 2 through 84 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ikeda M, Mitsui T, Setani K, Tamura M, Kakeyama M, Sone H, Tohyama C, Tomita T. 2005. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats disrupts brain sexual differentiation. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 205(1):98-105.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased expression of NMDA NR2A mRNA in neocortex at 49 days of age at 0.8 μg/kg; decreased expression of NMDA NR2B mRNA in neocortex at 49 days of age at both doses

Subjects: Long Evans Hooded rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.2 or 0.8 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 5 and 49 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kakeyama M, Sone H, Tohyama C. 2001. Changes in expression of NMDA receptor subunit mRNA by perinatal exposure to dioxin. Neuroreport 12(18):4009-4012.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased expression of NMDA NR2A mRNA in hippocampus at 49 days of age at 0.8 μg/kg; decreased expression of NMDA NR2B mRNA in hippocampus at 49 days of age at both doses

Subjects: Long Evans Hooded rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.2 or 0.8 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 5 and 49 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kakeyama M, Sone H, Tohyama C. 2001. Changes in expression of NMDA receptor subunit mRNA by perinatal exposure to dioxin. Neuroreport 12(18):4009-4012.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased number of mounts and intromissions at 97 days of age for non-castrated and castrated plus testosterone males at 0.8 μg/kg

Subjects: Long Evans Hooded rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.2 or 0.8 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 5 through 120 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kakeyama M, Sone H, Miyabara Y, Tohyama C. 2003. Perinatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters activity-dependent expression of BDNF mRNA in the neocortex and male rat sexual behavior in adulthood. Neurotoxicology 24(2):207-217.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased signal density of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA in the frontal cortex of males one hour after mating at 0.8 μg/kg

Subjects: Long Evans Hooded rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.2 or 0.8 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 5 through 120 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kakeyama M, Sone H, Miyabara Y, Tohyama C. 2003. Perinatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters activity-dependent expression of BDNF mRNA in the neocortex and male rat sexual behavior in adulthood. Neurotoxicology 24(2):207-217.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased testosterone and estrogen in the brains of 2 day old males at 0.2 μg/kg

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.2 or 0.8 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 2 through 49 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ishizuka M, Yonemoto J, Zaha H, Tohyama C, Sone H. 2003. Perinatal exposure to low doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters sex-dependent expression of hepatic CYP2C11. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17(5):278-285.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased age of eye opening in males at 1.0 μg/kg and in females at 0.16 and 1.0 μg/kg

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.064, 0.16, 0.40, or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: birth through sexual maturation

Reference [PubMed Link]
Mably TA, Moore RW, Peterson RE. 1992. In utero and lactational exposure of male-rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin. 1. Effects on androgenic status. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 114(1):97-107.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased mount latency and number of mounts, intromission latency and number of intromissions, ejaculatory latency and post-ejaculatory interval at 77 through 119 days in a dose-related manner; increased lordosis quotient and lordosis intensity of castrated males following estradiol and progesterone treatments at 175 through 185 days of age at 0.16, 0.4, and 1.0 μg/kg ; decreased copulatory rate at 56 through 119 days of age at 0.16, 0.40, and 1.0 μg/kg

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.064, 0.16, 0.40, or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 60 through 270 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Mably TA, Moore RW, Goy RW, Peterson RE. 1992. In utero and lactational exposure of male-rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin. 2. Effects on sexual-behavior and the regulation of luteinizing-hormone secretion in adulthood. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 114(1):108-117.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased percentage of eyes opened at 11 through 13 days of age for both in utero and lactational exposure

Subjects: Line C (highly sensitive to TCDD) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 (and cross-fostered at birth) – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 40 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miettinen HM, Alaluusua S, Tuomisto J, Viluksela M. 2002. Effect of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure on rat molar development: The role of exposure time. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 184(1):57-66.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased Sp1 DNA-binding in cerebral cortex at 3 days of age at 0.25 μg/kg; decreased Sp1 DNA-binding at 10 days of age at 0.25 μg/kg; increased Sp1 DNA-binding at 15 days of age at 0.25 μg/kg indicative of a biphasic pattern

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 3 through 30 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nayyar T, Zawia NH, Hood DB. 2002. Transplacental effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on the temporal modulation of Sp1 DNA binding in the developing cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Exp Toxicol Pathol 53(6):461-468.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased Sp1 DNA-binding in cerebella at 5, 10, and 15 days of age

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 3 through 30 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nayyar T, Zawia NH, Hood DB. 2002. Transplacental effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on the temporal modulation of Sp1 DNA binding in the developing cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Exp Toxicol Pathol 53(6):461-468.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Alterations in males and female sexual behaviors on 10 and 13 weeks after in utero exposure to TCDD.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and administered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 15 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: gestational day 20, post-natal days 21, 49, 56, 70, 91, 98, and 10 and 13 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Takeda T, Matsumoto Y, Koga T, Mutoh J, Nishimura Y, Shimazoe T, Ishii Y, Ishida T, Yamada H. 2009. Maternal exposure to dioxin disrupts gonadotropin production in fetal rats and imprints defects in sexual behavior. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 329(3):1091-1099.