The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased hindlimb grip strength in males at 1.0 mg/kg. Increased motor activity counts on post-natal day 17 in males treated in utero with 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg; females treated in utero at 1.0 mg/kg had increased activity counts only on post-natal day 21.

Subjects: Crl:CD rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 38)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 61

Reference [PubMed Link]
Butenhoff JL, Ehresman DJ, Chang SC, Parker GA, Stump DG. 2009. Gestational and lactational exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (K+PFOS) in rats: developmental neurotoxicity. Reprod Toxicol 27(3-4):319-330.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increased mRNA expression of hippocampal NR2B, CaM mRNA expression in pups exposed both in utero and lactionally on post-natal day 1. On post-natal day 7 NR2B mRNA expression was decreased in those exposed in utero only; reduced mRNA expression of CaM in in utero only and lactional only exposed groups in addition the in utero group had significantly lower levels of CaM compared to the lactional only exposed group. NR2B mRNA expression was decreased in in utero only, in utero and lactional, and lactational only treated groups; CaM mRNA expression was decreased in the lactional only group on post-natal day 35. CaMKIIα was elevated in the group exposed both lactionally and in utero on post-natal day 1; this effect persisted through post-natal day 7. CREB mRNA expression was elevated in the in utero only and the in utero and lactionally exposed groups on post-natal day 7.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 3.2 mg/kg feed

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 35 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 7, and 35

Reference [PubMed Link]
Liu X, Liu W, Jin Y, Yu W, Wang F, Liu L. 2010. Effect of gestational and lactational exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate on calcium-dependent signaling molecules gene expression in rats’ hippocampus. Arch Toxicol 84(1):71-79.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Delayed eye opening in the 0.4 mg/kg group. Delayed surface righting, and air righting at 1.6 mg/kg exposure group.

Subjects: Crl:CD rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.4, 1.6, 3.2 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: pre-conception – post-natal day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 38)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Luebker DJ, Case MT, York RG, Moore JA, Hansen KJ, Butenhoff JL. 2005. Two-generation reproduction and cross-foster studies of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats. Toxicology 215(1-2):126-148.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased hippocampal mRNA synaptophysin levels on post-natal day 0 at all exposure levels, persisting to post-natal day 21 for 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg exposures. Decreased hippocampal synapsin 1 and synapsin 2 mRNA levels at post-natal days 0 and 21 at all exposures with decreased synapsin 3 mRNA levels on post-natal day 0 at 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg. Alterations in the ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses including changes to vesicle numbers, size of active zone and synaptic interface curvature.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.6, 2.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – gestational day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 14)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 0 and 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Zeng HC, Li YY, Zhang L, Wang YJ, Chen J, Xia W, Lin Y, Wei J, Lv ZQ, Li M, Xu SQ. 2011. Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate in rat resulted in long-lasting changes of expression of synapsins and synaptophysin. Synapse 65(3):225-233.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Dose-related trend in delay for eye-opening and significantly delayed at 1.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: 129S1/SvlmJ mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 22

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wolf CJ, Schmid JE, Das KP, Zehr RD, Helfant L, Nakayama S, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ, Lau C. 2007. Perfluorooctanoic acid induced developmental toxicity in the mouse is dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci 98(2):571-581.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Delayed time to eye-opening in those exposed to 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0, 20.0, 40.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from gestational day 18 through 60 weeks

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Narotsky MG, Rogers JM, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ. 2006. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid exposure during pregnancy in the mouse. Toxicol Sci 90(2):510-518.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Delayed time to eye-opening in those exposed to 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from birth through 35 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Stanton ME, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci 74(2):382-392.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Increased activity among males and decreased activity among females in the first hour exploring a novel environment. Increased activity in males on both dark and light phases. Decreases in inactive periods in males and females. Decreased motor coordination in females in one trial.

Subjects: C57BL/6 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.3 mg/kg in feed

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 19 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 14)

Age of measurement: 5-8 weeks and 3-4 months of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Onishchenko N, Fischer C, Wan Ibrahim WN, Negri S, Spulber S, Cottica D, Ceccatelli S. 2011. Prenatal exposure to PFOS or PFOA alters motor function in mice in a sex-related manner. Neurotox Res 19(3):452-461.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased protein levels of BDNF and increased protein levels of BTEB and THRB in the cortex on post-natal day 7; increased protein levels of NCAM on post-natal day 14.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 3.2 mg/kg in feed

Other doses tested: 32 mg/kg in feed

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – post-natal day 14 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 35)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1, 7, and 14

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wang F, Liu W, Jin Y, Dai J, Zhao H, Xie Q, Liu X, Yu W, Ma J. 2011. Interaction of PFOS and BDE-47 co-exposure on thyroid hormone levels and TH-related gene and protein expression in developing rat brains. Toxicol Sci 121(2):279-291.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased locomotor activity in males when exploring a new environment and decreased activity during the first two hours after encountering a novel environment (significant for females in the first hour only). Increases in the number of inactive periods. Changes in several behavior parameters in males in the elevated plus maze. Shorter fall latencies in the hanging wire test (muscle strength) in males and rotatod test (motor coordination) in males and females.

Subjects: C57BL/6 mice

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.3 mg/kg in feed

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 19 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 14)

Age of measurement: 5-8 weeks and 3-4 months of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Onishchenko N, Fischer C, Wan Ibrahim WN, Negri S, Spulber S, Cottica D, Ceccatelli S. 2011. Prenatal exposure to PFOS or PFOA alters motor function in mice in a sex-related manner. Neurotox Res 19(3):452-461.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Alterations in the expression of differentially expressed genes as related to their relationship to several biological processes and molecular functions. On post- natal day 7 cortical transthyretin mRNA levels were decreased in those treated in utero and both in utero and lactionally; these effects persisted through post-natal day 35 where the lactional only group also had decreased levels. Initially CNP1 mRNA levels were decreased in those treated in utero and lactationally; by post-natal day 7 levels were increased then decreased on post-natal day 14 then elevated by post-natal day 21. CNP1 levels we also decreased in those treated in utero only and lactionally only. On post-natal day 1 NMDAR mRNA levels were initally decreased but elevated by post-natal day 7 in the in utero and lactational group. On post-natal day 7 both the in utero only and in utero and lactionally exposed groups had elevated mRNA levels of IP3R1; by post-natal day 14 those treated both in utero and lactionally had decreased levels.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 3.2 mg/kg feed

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – post-natal day 35 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 35

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wang F, Liu W, Jin Y, Dai J, Yu W, Liu X, Liu L. 2010. Transcriptional effects of prenatal and neonatal exposure to PFOS in developing rat brain. Environ Sci Technol 44(5):1847-1853.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increased protein levels of GAP-43 and NCAM in the hippocampus on post-natal day 7 and of NCAM and THRB on post-natal day 14.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 3.2 mg/kg in feed

Other doses tested: 32 mg/kg in feed

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – post-natal day 14 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 35)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1, 7, and 14

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wang F, Liu W, Jin Y, Dai J, Zhao H, Xie Q, Liu X, Yu W, Ma J. 2011. Interaction of PFOS and BDE-47 co-exposure on thyroid hormone levels and TH-related gene and protein expression in developing rat brains. Toxicol Sci 121(2):279-291.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Delayed time to eye-opening with in utero and lactational exposure at 3.0 and 5.0 mg/kg and in utero only exposure at 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 3.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from post-natal day 1 through 35 weeks

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wolf CJ, Fenton SE, Schmid JE, Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Bryant XA, Thibodeaux J, Das KP, White SS, Lau CS, Abbott BD. 2007. Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid in the CD-1 mouse after cross-foster and restricted gestational exposures. Toxicol Sci 95(2):462-473.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Delayed time to eye-opening in those exposed to 2.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: from birth through 35 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Stanton ME, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci 74(2):382-392.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased choline acetyltransferase activity in the prefrontal cortex in the 3.0 mg/kg exposure group

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: from birth through 35 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Stanton ME, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci 74(2):382-392.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increase in GFAP+ cells (astrocyte activation) at all exposures on post-natal day 21 in the cortex. Increased cortical mRNA levels of GFAP at 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg on post-natal day 0 and at 0.1, 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg with increases in GFAP protein levels on post-natal day 21. Increases in cortical s100b mRNA beginning on post-natal day 0 continuing to post-natal day 21 with increases in protein levels at 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg. Increases in cortical IL-1β and TNF-α, AP-1, NF-κB, and CREB mRNA at various time-points and doses. Increased cortical synaptophysin protein expression on post-natal day 0 and 21 at 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg. Decreased cortical synapsin 1 protein levels on post-natal day 0 at 2.0 mg/kg and on post-natal day 21 at 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.6, 2.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 0 and 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Zeng HC, Zhang L, Li YY, Wang YJ, Xia W, Lin Y, Wei J, Xu SQ. 2011. Inflammation-like glial response in rat brain induced by prenatal PFOS exposure. Neurotoxicology 32(1):130-139.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increase in hippocampal GFAP+ cells (astrocyte activation) at all exposures on post-natal day 21, with increases in GFAP mRNA on post-natal days 0 and 21 and increases in protein levels at all dose levels. Increases in s100b mRNA on post-natal days 0 and 21 with increases in protein levels at 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg. Increases in hippocampal IL-1β, TNF-α, AP-1, NF-κB, and CREB mRNA at various time-points and doses. Decreases in synaptophysin protein expression on post-natal day 0 at 2.0 mg/kg and on post-natal day 21 at 0.1, 0.6, and 2.0 mg/kg. Synapsin 1 protein levels were decreased on post-natal day 0 at 0.1, 0.6, and 2.0 mg/kg, persisting to post-natal day 21 at 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg exposure levels.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.6, 2.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 0 and 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Zeng HC, Zhang L, Li YY, Wang YJ, Xia W, Lin Y, Wei J, Xu SQ. 2011. Inflammation-like glial response in rat brain induced by prenatal PFOS exposure. Neurotoxicology 32(1):130-139.