The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased mammary cell numbers in a pooled group of mice exposed to 6 and 12 μg/kg at 3 months of age compared to controls. At 6 and 12 months of age there was an increased % of PR positive luminal epithelial and wnt-4 mRNA expression in the mammary glands of mice exposed to 6.0 μg/kg.

Subjects: C57BL6/J mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.6, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, 120.0, 600.0 μg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 1200.0 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered in drinking water daily

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 24 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 30 and post-natal months 3, 6 and 12

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ayyanan A, Laribi O, Schuepbach-Mallepell S, Schrick C, Gutierrez M, Tanos T, Lefebvre G, Rougemont J, Yalcin-Ozuysal O, Brisken C. 2011. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A increases adult mammary gland progesterone response and cell number. Mol Endocrinol 25(11):1915-1923.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased germ cell methylation of Igf2r, Peg3, and H19 at 80 and 160 μg/kg, 40, 80, and 160 μg/kg and 80 μg/kg, respectively. Decreased Nobox and DazL mRNA levels and increased ERα mRNA levels at the highest dose.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 40.0, 80.0 or 160 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in DMSO and delievered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 0.5 – gestational day 12.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: gestational day 12.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Zhang XF, Zhang LJ, Feng YN, Chen B, Feng YM, Liang GJ, Li L, Shen W. 2012. Bisphenol A exposure modifies DNA methylation of imprint genes in mouse fetal germ cells. Mol Biol Rep 39(9):8621-8628.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased number of primordial and developing follicles, and increased number of atretic follicles at 100.0 and 1000.0 μg/kg dose levels.

Subjects: BALB/c mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 100.0 or 1000.0 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in ETOH and delivered subcutaneously

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – post-natal day 7 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 25)

Age of measurement: post-natal month 3

Reference [PubMed Link]
Signorile PG, Spugnini EP, Citro G, Viceconte R, Vincenzi B, Baldi F, Baldi A. 2012. Endocrine disruptors in utero cause ovarian damages linked to endometriosis. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 4:1724-1730.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased adenomatous hyperplasia in mice treated with 1000.0 μg/kg. Endometriosis-like phenotype was described in 30% and 35% of those treated at the 100.0 and 1000.0 μg/kg dose levels respectively, significantly more than controls.

Subjects: BALB/c mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 100.0 or 1000.0 μg/kg

Route of administration: dissolved in ETOH and delivered subcutaneously

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – post-natal day 7 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 25)

Age of measurement: post-natal month 3

Reference [PubMed Link]
Signorile PG, Spugnini EP, Mita L, Mellone P, D’Avino A, Bianco M, Diano N, Caputo L, Rea F, Viceconte R, Portaccio M, Viggiano E, Citro G, Pierantoni R, Sica V, Vincenzi B, Mita DG, Baldi F, Baldi A. 2010. Pre-natal exposure of mice to bisphenol A elicits an endometriosis-like phenotype in female offspring. Gen Comp Endocrinol 168(3):318-325.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Cystic ovaries were found in 45% and 50% of mice treated with BPA at 100.0 and 1000.0 μg/kg respectively, significantly more than controls.

Subjects: BALB/c mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 100.0 or 1000.0 μg/kg

Route of administration: dissolved in ETOH and delivered subcutaneously

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – post-natal day 7 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 25)

Age of measurement: post-natal month 3

Reference [PubMed Link]
Signorile PG, Spugnini EP, Mita L, Mellone P, D’Avino A, Bianco M, Diano N, Caputo L, Rea F, Viceconte R, Portaccio M, Viggiano E, Citro G, Pierantoni R, Sica V, Vincenzi B, Mita DG, Baldi F, Baldi A. 2010. Pre-natal exposure of mice to bisphenol A elicits an endometriosis-like phenotype in female offspring. Gen Comp Endocrinol 168(3):318-325.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Earlier vaginal opening at higher dose

Subjects: C57/Bl-6 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 or 200 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 3 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: daily through puberty

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ryan BC, Vandenbergh JG. 2006. Developmental exposure to environmental estrogens alters anxiety and spatial memory in female mice. Hormones & Behavior 50(1):85-93.