The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Delayed vaginal opening, less pronounced cornification of the vaginal epithelium during estrus and more pronounced mucification during diestrus

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.1 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 50 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in peanut oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference
Talsness C, Fialkowski O, Gericke C, Merker H-J, Chahoud I. 2000. The effects of low and high doses of bisphenol A on the reproductive system of female and male rat offspring. Congenital Anomalies 40:S94-S107.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased cavities containing nuclei with condensed chromatin in the luminal endometrial epithelium; decreased estrogen receptor β expression

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.1 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 50 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: mixed with cornstarch and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: 4 months of age during estrus

Reference [PubMed Link]
Schonfelder G, Friedrich K, Paul M, Chahoud I. 2004. Developmental effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A on the uterus of rat offspring. Neoplasia 6(5):584-594.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased anogenital distance

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 70.0 μg/kg bw (estimated)

Route of administration: delivered in drinking water

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Somm E, Schwitzgebel VM, Toulotte A, Cederroth CR, Combescure C, Nef S, Aubert ML, Huppi PS. 2009. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol a alters early adipogenesis in the rat. Environ Health Perspect 117(10):1549-1555.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased weight of parametrial white adipose tissue from around the uterus (pWAT); adipocyte hypertrophy and overexpression of lipogenic genes in pWAT

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 70.0 μg/kg bw (estimated)

Route of administration: delivered in drinking water

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Somm E, Schwitzgebel VM, Toulotte A, Cederroth CR, Combescure C, Nef S, Aubert ML, Huppi PS. 2009. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol a alters early adipogenesis in the rat. Environ Health Perspect 117(10):1549-1555.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased RXRα mRNA expression in the ovaries of embryos assessed on day 14.5

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 17.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: gestational days 12.5, 14.5, 16.5 and 18.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Manabe N, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Miyamoto H. 2003. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on expression of RARalpha and RXRalpha mRNAs in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 49(6):539-545.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased AhR and RARα mRNA expression in the ovaries of embryos at 0.02 μg/kg.

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.02, 2 or 200 μg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 20,000 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 13.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: gestational day 14.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Manabe N. 2005. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on mRNA expression of arylhydrocarbon and retinoid receptors in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 51(3):315-324.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased AhR mRNA expression in the ovaries of embryos at all three low doses; increased RXRα at 200μg/kg only.

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.02, 2 or 200 μg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 20,000 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 17.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Manabe N. 2005. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on mRNA expression of arylhydrocarbon and retinoid receptors in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 51(3):315-324.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased mammary tissue growth rate and altered morphologic features of the stroma, post-puberty

Subjects: Wistar-derived rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 25 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered through an implanted osmotic pump

Exposure duration: gestational day 8 – gestational day 23 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 20)

Age of measurement: prepuberty, post-puberty and adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Durando M, Kass L, Piva J, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM, Luque E, Munoz-de-Toro M. 2007. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure induces preneoplastic lesions in the mammary gland in Wistar rats. Environ Health Perspect 115(1):80-86.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Earlier vaginal opening

Subjects: Wistar-derived rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 25 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered through an implanted osmotic pump

Exposure duration: gestational day 8 – gestational day 23 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 20)

Age of measurement: prepuberty, post-puberty and adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Durando M, Kass L, Piva J, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM, Luque E, Munoz-de-Toro M. 2007. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure induces preneoplastic lesions in the mammary gland in Wistar rats. Environ Health Perspect 115(1):80-86.