The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased percentage with vaginal opening at 42 through 50 days

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.3 or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: Initial dose was followed by weekly maintenance doses (at 40 percent)

Route of administration: injected subcutaneously

Exposure duration: gestational day 19 – adulthood (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 10 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Thiel R, Koch E, Ulbrich B, Chahoud I. 1994. Peri- and postnatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin - effects on physiological development, reflexes, locomotor activity and learning behaviour in Wistar rats. Arch Toxicol 69(2):79-86.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased number of proliferating cells and BRDU labelled nuclei in ureteric epithelial cells at 6.5 days culture at 10 nM; increased number of proliferating cells at 6.5 days culture at 1.0 nM

Subjects: C57BL/6N mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 nM

Route of administration: in vitro culture

Exposure duration: gestational day 18 – in vitro culture (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 10 to day 1 of week 23)

Age of measurement: 4 through 14 days culture

Reference [PubMed Link]
Bryant PL, Reid LM, Schmidt JE, Buckalew AR, Abbott BD. 2001. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on fetal mouse urinary tract epithelium in vitro. Toxicology 162(1):23-34.