The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased frequency of cleft clitoris and vaginal thread

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 18 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 8 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Flaws JA, Sommer RJ, Silbergeld EK, Peterson RE, Hirshfield AN. 1997. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces genital dysmorphogenesis in the female rat. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 147(2):351-362.