The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Phthalates (BBP)

Earlier vaginal opening

Subjects: AP rats

Chemical: Phthalates (BBP)

Low doses tested: 1000 μg/l

Route of administration: dissolved and fed in drinking water

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 22 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: from birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ashby J, Tinwell H, Lefevre PA, Odum J, Paton D, Millward SW, Tittensor S, Brooks AN. 1997. Normal sexual development of rats exposed to butyl benzyl phthalate from conception to weaning. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology 26(1 Part 1):102-118.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Phthalates (DEHP)

Increased ovary weight. Alterations in the percentage of mature and degenerated oocytes. Changes in the developmental capacity of the gametes. Decreased mRNA expression of cyp19a1, pgr, lhr, and fshr in the ovary.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: Phthalates (DEHP)

Low doses tested: 0.05 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered in diet daily

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 21-42

Reference [PubMed Link]
Pocar P, Fiandanese N, Secchi C, Berrini A, Fischer B, Schmidt JS, Schaedlich K, Borromeo V. 2012. Exposure to di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in utero and during lactation causes long-term pituitary-gonadal axis disruption in male and female mouse offspring. Endocrinology 153(2):937-948.