The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Delayed time to first estrus at 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0, 20.0, 40.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from gestational day 18 through 60 weeks

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Narotsky MG, Rogers JM, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ. 2006. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid exposure during pregnancy in the mouse. Toxicol Sci 90(2):510-518.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased mammary gland developmental scores on post-natal days 14, 21, 42, and 84 at 0.3 mg/kg; on post-natal days 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 84 at 1.0 mg/kg; on post-natal days 7, 14, 21, and 28 at 3.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 63, 84

Reference [PubMed Link]
Macon MB, Villanueva LR, Tatum-Gibbs K, Zehr RD, Strynar MJ, Stanko JP, White SS, Helfant L, Fenton SE. 2011. Prenatal perfluorooctanoic acid exposure in CD-1 mice: low-dose developmental effects and internal dosimetry. Toxicol Sci 122(1):134-145.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Epithelial branching and longitudinal growth of the mammary gland were sigificantly stunted.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 5, 10, 20

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Villanueva L, Zehr RD, Helfant L, Strynar MJ, Lindstrom AB, Thibodeaux JR, Wood C, Fenton SE. 2007. Gestational PFOA exposure of mice is associated with altered mammary gland development in dams and female offspring. Toxicol Sci 96(1):133-144.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased mammary gland developmental scores in those exposed to 5.0 mg/kg in utero only, lactionally only, and in utero and lactationally on post-natal days 22, 42, and 63. However those exposed to 3.0 mg/kg lactionally only had a decrease on post-natal days 42 and 63, in utero only on post-natal days 22, 42, and 63, in utero and lactionally on post-natal days 22 and 63.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 3.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 22, 42, 63 and 18 months

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Kato K, Jia LT, Basden BJ, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Stanko JP, Wolf CJ, Abbott BD, Fenton SE. 2009. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on mouse mammary gland development and differentiation resulting from cross-foster and restricted gestational exposures. Reprod Toxicol 27(3-4):289-298.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased mammary gland development scores on post-natal days 22, 42, and 63. Alterations in mammary gland scores after giving birth. Decreases in pup mammary gland developmental scores on post-natal day 63 in pups born to females gestationally exposed to 1.0mg/kg PFOA .

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Stanko JP, Kato K, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Fenton SE. 2011. Gestational and chronic low-dose PFOA exposures and mammary gland growth and differentiation in three generations of CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect 119(8):1070-1076.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased mammary gland development scores. Decreased mammary gland scores after giving birth to their own litters. Decreased mammary gland developmental scores in pups born to females exposed to PFOA.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 ppb delivered post-natally in drinking water, or 1.0 mg/kg prenatally + 5.0 ppb post-natally in water

Route of administration: dissolved in drinking water and/ or dissolved in deionized water and delivered through gavage.

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – post-natal day 91 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Stanko JP, Kato K, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Fenton SE. 2011. Gestational and chronic low-dose PFOA exposures and mammary gland growth and differentiation in three generations of CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect 119(8):1070-1076.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased number of implants and live fetuses/litter in females gestationally exposed to PFOA at 5.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Stanko JP, Kato K, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Fenton SE. 2011. Gestational and chronic low-dose PFOA exposures and mammary gland growth and differentiation in three generations of CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect 119(8):1070-1076.