The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Epithelial branching and longitudinal growth of the mammary gland were sigificantly stunted.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 8 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 5, 10, 20

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Villanueva L, Zehr RD, Helfant L, Strynar MJ, Lindstrom AB, Thibodeaux JR, Wood C, Fenton SE. 2007. Gestational PFOA exposure of mice is associated with altered mammary gland development in dams and female offspring. Toxicol Sci 96(1):133-144.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased mammary gland developmental scores in those exposed to 5.0 mg/kg in uteroonly, lactionally only, and in utero and lactationally with these effects persisting through the duration of the study.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 8 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 3, 5, 10

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Kato K, Jia LT, Basden BJ, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Stanko JP, Wolf CJ, Abbott BD, Fenton SE. 2009. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on mouse mammary gland development and differentiation resulting from cross-foster and restricted gestational exposures. Reprod Toxicol 27(3-4):289-298.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased mammary gland developmental scores at 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg exposures with decreases in terminal end buds, longitudinal and change in longitudinal growth at 1.0 mg/kg exposure. In addition there were decreases in terminal end buds at 0.1 mg/kg.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1, 4, 7, 14, 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Macon MB, Villanueva LR, Tatum-Gibbs K, Zehr RD, Strynar MJ, Stanko JP, White SS, Helfant L, Fenton SE. 2011. Prenatal perfluorooctanoic acid exposure in CD-1 mice: low-dose developmental effects and internal dosimetry. Toxicol Sci 122(1):134-145.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased mammary gland developmental scores marked by reduced ductal elongation and branching including delays in timing and density of terminal end buds.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 29, 32 and 18 months

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Kato K, Jia LT, Basden BJ, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Stanko JP, Wolf CJ, Abbott BD, Fenton SE. 2009. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on mouse mammary gland development and differentiation resulting from cross-foster and restricted gestational exposures. Reprod Toxicol 27(3-4):289-298.