The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Delayed preputial separation, increased relative paired epididymal weight in adulthood

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.1 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 50 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in peanut oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference
Talsness C, Fialkowski O, Gericke C, Merker H-J, Chahoud I. 2000. The effects of low and high doses of bisphenol A on the reproductive system of female and male rat offspring. Congenital Anomalies 40:S94-S107.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Delayed testicular descent; in adulthood, increased relative paired testicular weight, increased sperm, decreased spermatid, decreased daily sperm production and delayed sperm transit rate

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.1 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 50 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in peanut oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference
Talsness C, Fialkowski O, Gericke C, Merker H-J, Chahoud I. 2000. The effects of low and high doses of bisphenol A on the reproductive system of female and male rat offspring. Congenital Anomalies 40:S94-S107.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased RARα mRNA expression in the testes of embryos assessed on days 14.5 and 18.5; also decreased RXRα mRNA at 14.5 days

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 17.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: gestational days 12.5, 14.5, 16.5 and 18.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Manabe N, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Miyamoto H. 2003. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on expression of RARalpha and RXRalpha mRNAs in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 49(6):539-545.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased AhR mRNA expression in the testes at 0.02 μg/kg

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.02, 2 or 200 μg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 20,000 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 13.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: gestational day 14.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Manabe N. 2005. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on mRNA expression of arylhydrocarbon and retinoid receptors in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 51(3):315-324.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased right epididymal and paired epididymal absolute weights at post-natal week 13 in F1 males.

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.05, 0.5 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 5 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered in feed daily

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – post-natal week 13-15 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 3, 7, 10 and post-natal weeks 13 and 15

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kobayashi K, Ohtani K, Kubota H, Miyagawa M. 2010. Dietary exposure to low doses of bisphenol A: effects on reproduction and development in two generations of C57BL/6J mice. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 50(3):159-170.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased percentage of motile sperm on post-natal week 15 in F2 males exposed to 0.05 mg/kg.

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.05, 0.5 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 5 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered in feed daily

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – post-natal week 13-15 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 3, 7, 10 and post-natal weeks 13 and 15

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kobayashi K, Ohtani K, Kubota H, Miyagawa M. 2010. Dietary exposure to low doses of bisphenol A: effects on reproduction and development in two generations of C57BL/6J mice. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 50(3):159-170.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased AhR mRNA expression in the testes at all three low doses; increased RXRα at 200 μg/kg

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.02, 2 or 200 μg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 20,000 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and fed orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 6.5 – gestational day 17.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nishizawa H, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Manabe N. 2005. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on mRNA expression of arylhydrocarbon and retinoid receptors in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 51(3):315-324.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased fibroblastic to smooth muscle cell ratio and decreased androgen receptor positive cells of the periductal stroma; also decreased prostatic acid phosphatase expression in epithelial cells

Subjects: Wistar-derived rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 25 or 250 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered through an implanted osmotic pump

Exposure duration: gestational day 8 – gestational day 23 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 20)

Age of measurement: from birth through 30 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ramos JG, Varayoud J, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM, Munoz de Toro M, Luque EH. 2001. Prenatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A alters the periductal stroma and glandular cell function in the rat ventral prostate. Biol Reprod 65(4):1271-1277.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased cellular proliferation in periductal stroma in prepuberty and increased layer of fibroblasts in peripuberty; also peripubertal decrease in expression of androgen receptors in stromal cells and prostatic acid phosphatase in epithelial cells; none of these effects were maintained in adulthood

Subjects: Wistar-derived rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 25 or 250 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered through an implanted osmotic pump

Exposure duration: gestational day 8 – gestational day 23 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 20)

Age of measurement: prepuberty (15 days), peripuberty (30 days) and adulthood (120 days of age)

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ramos JG, Varayoud J, Kass L, Rodriguez H, Costabel L, Munoz-De-Toro M, Luque EH. 2003. Bisphenol A induces both transient and permanent histofunctional alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in prenatally exposed male rats. Endocrinology 144(7):3206-3215.