The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased body weight at some time points at higher dose; increased anogenital distance

Subjects: ICR/Jcl mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 or 20 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in sesame oil and injected subcutanously

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from birth to adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Honma S, Suzuki A, Buchanan DL, Katsu Y, Watanabe H, Iguchi T. 2002. Low dose effect of in utero exposure to bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on female mouse reproduction. Reprod Toxicol 16(2):117-122.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased testes weight at 8 weeks in lower dose group and at 12 weeks in both groups

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 or 20 ng/g bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and fed through a micropipette

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kawai K, Nozaki T, Nishikata H, Takii M, Kubo C. 2003. Aggressive behavior and serum testosterone concentration during the maturation process of male mice: The effects of fetal exposure to bisphenol A. Environ Health Perspect 111(2):175-178.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased epididymal weight and increased preputial gland weight in lower dose group

Subjects: CF-1 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 or 20 ng/g bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and fed through a micropipette

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 6 months of age (adulthood)

Reference [PubMed Link]
vom Saal FS, Cooke PS, Buchanan DL, Palanza P, Thayer KA, Nagel SC, Parmigiani S, Welshons WV. 1998. A physiologically based approach to the study of bisphenol A and other estrogenic chemicals on the size of reproductive organs, daily sperm production, and behavior. Toxicology & Industrial Health 14(1-2):239-260.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased daily sperm production (per gram testes weight) in higher dose group

Subjects: CF-1 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 or 20 ng/g bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and fed through a micropipette

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 6 months of age (adulthood)

Reference [PubMed Link]
vom Saal FS, Cooke PS, Buchanan DL, Palanza P, Thayer KA, Nagel SC, Parmigiani S, Welshons WV. 1998. A physiologically based approach to the study of bisphenol A and other estrogenic chemicals on the size of reproductive organs, daily sperm production, and behavior. Toxicology & Industrial Health 14(1-2):239-260.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased prostate weight at both doses

Subjects: CF-1 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2 or 20 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and fed through a micropipette

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 6 months of age (adulthood)

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nagel SC, vom Saal FS, Thayer KA, Dhar MG, Boechler M, Welshons WV. 1997. Relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A and octylphenol. Environ Health Perspect 105(1):70-76.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased seminal vesicle weight

Subjects: Long-Evans rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2.4 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 12 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: in adulthood (90 days of age)

Reference [PubMed Link]
Akingbemi BT, Sottas CM, Koulova AI, Klinefelter GR, Hardy MP. 2004. Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis by the xenoestrogen bisphenol A is associated with reduced pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion and decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in rat Leydig cells. Endocrinology 145(2):592-603.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased testes weight; decreased rate of testosterone production by Leydig cells; decreased concentration of testosterone in testicular interstitial fluid

Subjects: Long-Evans rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2.4 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 12 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: in adulthood (90 days of age)

Reference [PubMed Link]
Akingbemi BT, Sottas CM, Koulova AI, Klinefelter GR, Hardy MP. 2004. Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis by the xenoestrogen bisphenol A is associated with reduced pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion and decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in rat Leydig cells. Endocrinology 145(2):592-603.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased sperm count and motility in three generations; decreased androgen receptor expression in three generations at 1.2 μg/kg and in the third generation at 2.4 μg/kg; decreased estrogen receptor beta expression in three generations; increased estrogen receptor alpha expression in the first generation only

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 1.2 or 2.4 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered via gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 12 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Salian S, Doshi T, Vanage G. 2009. Perinatal exposure of rats to Bisphenol A affects the fertility of male offspring. Life Sci 85(21-22):742-752.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased in vitro proliferation of PLCs after in vivo exposed both dose levels on post-natal day 21. On day 90, leydig cell numbers were increased in males exposed to 2.5 and 25.0 μg/kg. PCNA, Cyclin D3, p-MAPK3/1, LHCGR, ESR1, AR, IGF-1RB, EGFR, and AMHR2 leydig cell protein levels were elevated at both dose levels on post-natal day 21. Decreased T production in PLCs (21PND), ILCs (35PND), and ALCs (90PND) at both 2.5 and 25.0 μg/kg. In addition, LHCGR and HSD17B3 protein levels were decreased in adult leydig cells on post-natal day 90 at 2.5 and 25.0 μg/kg.

Subjects: Long-Evans rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2.5 or 25.0 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and administered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 12 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 4 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 21, 35 and 90

Reference [PubMed Link]
Nanjappa MK, Simon L, Akingbemi BT. 2012. The industrial chemical bisphenol A (BPA) interferes with proliferative activity and development of steroidogenic capacity in rat Leydig cells. Biol Reprod 86(5):135, 1-12.