The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Decreased sex differences in tyrosine hydroxylase neuron number, primarily due to decreases in treated females

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 25 or 250 ng/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered through an implanted osmotic pump

Exposure duration: gestational day 8 – post-natal day 16 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 34)

Age of measurement: 22-24 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Rubin BS, Lenkowski JR, Schaeberle CM, Vandenberg LN, Ronsheim PM, Soto AM. 2006. Evidence of altered brain sexual differentiation in mice exposed perinatally to low, environmentally relevant levels of bisphenol A. Endocrinology 147(8):3681-3691.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased P4 levels in pregnant F1 dams on gestation day 21, in those exposed to 50.0 μg/kg in utero.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.5 or 50.0 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in ethanol and diluted in water and delivered in drinking water

Exposure duration: gestational day 9 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 108, 111, 112-125

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kass L, Altamirano GA, Bosquiazzo VL, Luque EH, Munoz-de-Toro M. 2012. Perinatal exposure to xenoestrogens impairs mammary gland differentiation and modifies milk composition in Wistar rats. Reprod Toxicol 33(3):390-400.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Administration of E2 to BPA exposed males induced an LH surge similar to untreated females. BPA exposure increased LH and decreased T levels on post-natal days 30 and 50 and increased E2 levels on post-natal days 50 and 90.

Subjects: Sprague Dawley rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 2.0 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in DMSO and delievered subcutaneously

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – lactational day 7 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 28)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 30, 50 and 90

Reference [PubMed Link]
Bai Y, Chang F, Zhou R, Jin PP, Matsumoto H, Sokabe M, Chen L. 2011. Increase of anteroventral periventricular kisspeptin neurons and generation of E2-induced LH-surge system in male rats exposed perinatally to environmental dose of bisphenol-A. Endocrinology 152(4):1562-1571.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased serum free thyroxine levels in 7 day old males

Subjects: SD rats

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.1 mg/l

Other doses tested: 50 mg/l

Route of administration: dissolved and fed in drinking water

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth, 7 and 21 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Xu X, Liu Y, Sadamatsu M, Tsutsumi S, Akaike M, Ushijima H, Kato N. 2007. Perinatal bisphenol A affects the behavior and SRC-1 expression of male pups but does not influence on the thyroid hormone receptors and its responsive gene. Neurosci Res 58(2):149-155.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased serum leptin and total cholesterol levels in females; increased serum triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acid, and decreased glucose levels in males

Subjects: ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 1 μg/ml

Other doses tested: 10 μg/ml (2.72 mg/kg bw/d)

Route of administration: dissolved and fed in drinking water

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – post-natal day 30 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 31 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miyawaki J, Sakayama K, Kato H, Yamamoto H, Masuno H. 2007. Perinatal and postnatal exposure to bisphenol a increases adipose tissue mass and serum cholesterol level in mice. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 14(5):245-252.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Bisphenol A

Increased proliferation in the pituitaries of females exposed to 0.5 and 50.0 μg/kg, increased FSHβ and LHβ positive cells in females exposed to 0.5 and 50.0 μg/kg. Increased LHβ and FSHβ mRNA transcript levels at the 0.5 μg/kg dose while levels were decreased at the 50.0 μg/kg dose in females. Decreased Nr5a1 and Gnrhr mRNA transcript levels at 50.0 μg/kg and increased Gnrhr at 0.5 μg/kg in females.

Subjects: FVBxC57BL/6 and CD-1 mice

Chemical: Bisphenol A

Low doses tested: 0.5 or 50.0 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in ethanol and diluted in tocopheral-stripped corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 10.5 – gestational day 18.5 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 5, 10 and at 4-6 months of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Brannick KE, Craig ZR, Himes AD, Peretz JR, Wang W, Flaws JA, Raetzman LT. 2012. Prenatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol a increases pituitary proliferation and gonadotroph number in female mice offspring at birth. Biol Reprod 87(4):82.