The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased plasma estradiol in females at 1 μg/kg at 14 and 16 days of age; increased testosterone in males at 1 μg/kg at 10 days of age; increased luteinizing hormone in females at 1.0 μg/kg at 14 days of age; increased follicle stimulating hormone in females at 1 μg/kg at 12 and 14 days of age

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.04, 0.2 or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil, sonicated, and delivered via gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 13 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: 10 through 16 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Myllymaki SA, Haavisto TE, Brokken LJS, Viluksela M, Toppari J, Paranko J. 2005. In utero and lactational exposure to TCDD; Steroidogenic outcomes differ in male and female rat pups. Toxicol Sci 88(2):534-544.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased frequency of missing third molars; decreased eruption frequency of developed lower third molars; decreased mesiodistal length of lower first and second molars; increased incidence of erupted lower incisors at 9 through 14 days of age

Subjects: Line C (highly sensitive to TCDD) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 13 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: 40 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miettinen HM, Alaluusua S, Tuomisto J, Viluksela M. 2002. Effect of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure on rat molar development: The role of exposure time. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 184(1):57-66.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased lengths of tibia; decreased bone mineral density, cross-sectional area of cortex, periosteal circumference, and polar cross-sectional moment of inertia in line C rats at 1.0 μg/kg

Subjects: Line A (least sensitive to TCDD), B, and C (most sensitive) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 μg/kg bw; exposure timing study

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 13 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: 40 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miettinen HM, Pulkkinen P, Jamsa T, Koistinen J, Simanainen U, Tuomisto J, Tuukkanen J, Viluksela M. 2005. Effects of in utero and lactational TCDD exposure on bone development in differentially sensitive rat lines. Toxicol Sci 85(2):1003-1012.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased serum progesterone (P4) level at 1.0 μg/kg; increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels after human recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH ) stimulation at 0.2 μg/kg; decreased P4 secretion levels in day 3 and day 5 follicle cultures at all dose levels; decreased E2 secretion in day 5 follicle culture at 1.0 μg/kg

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.04, 0.2, or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 13 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: 14 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Pesonen SA, Haavisto TE, Viluksela M, Toppari J, Paranko J. 2006. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on rat follicular steroidogenesis. Reprod Toxicol 22(3):521-528.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Varied effects on CYP1A1 mRNA.

Subjects: C57BL/6N mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 nM

Route of administration: in vitro culture

Exposure duration: gestational day 12 – 2-48 hours in vitro (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: 4 through 48 hours culture

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Held GA, Wood CR, Buckalew AR, Brown JG, Schmid J. 1999. AhR, ARNT, and CYP1A1 mRNA quantitation in cultured human embryonic palates exposed to TCDD and comparison with mouse palate in vivo and in culture. Toxicol Sci 47(1):62-75.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA in the calvaria of females only

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 5.0 μg/kg

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 12.5 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Tanaka J, Yonemoto J, Zaha H, Kiyama R, Sone H. 2007. Estrogen-responsive genes newly found to be modified by TCDD exposure in human cell lines and mouse systems. Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology 272(1-2):38-49.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased pituitary leuteinizing hormone(LH) at 1.0 μg/kg in Han/Wistar rats

Subjects: Han/Wistar, Long Evans and Sprague -Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.05 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 13.5 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: gestational day 19.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Haavisto T, Nurmela K, Pohjanvirta R, Huuskonen H, El-Gehani F, Paranko J. 2001. Prenatal testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels in male rats exposed during pregnancy to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and diethylstilbestrol. Mol Cell Endocrinol 178(1-2):169-179.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased circulating plasma testosterone concentration in Han/Wistar rats at 0.5 and 1.0 μg/kg

Subjects: Han/Wistar, Long Evans and Sprague -Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.05 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 13.5 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: gestational day 19.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Haavisto T, Nurmela K, Pohjanvirta R, Huuskonen H, El-Gehani F, Paranko J. 2001. Prenatal testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels in male rats exposed during pregnancy to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and diethylstilbestrol. Mol Cell Endocrinol 178(1-2):169-179.