The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Phthalates (BBP and DBP)

Increased DNA damage, phospho-ATM, p-p53 ser15, p-p53 ser 20, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (p-21), Bax levels, Apaf-1 levels, cytochrome c levels, mitochondrial fraction of cleaved -caspase 9 and cleaved-caspase 3 in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts at 1 μM benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) at various times between 30 minutes and 24 hours; decreased c-myc, EDK4, cyclin D3, and phospho - Rb ser 780 at 1 μM BBP at various times between 30 minutes and 24 hours

Subjects: Harlan Sprague Dawley ICR (CD-1) mice

Chemical: Phthalates (BBP and DBP)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μM

Route of administration: in vitro culture

Exposure duration: approximately 1 day of age – 24 hours in vitro culture (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 15 to day 1 of week 26)

Age of measurement: 30 minutes to several days in treatment culture

Reference [PubMed Link]
Sabbieti MG, Agas D, Santoni G, Materazzi S, Menghi G, Marchetti L. 2009. Involvement of p53 in phthalate effects on mouse and rat osteoblasts. J Cell Biochem 107(2):316-327.