The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increased mean thyroid follicular epithelial cell height in male pup exposed to 1.0 mg/kg on post-natal day 21. On gestational day 20, increased proliferation of female fetal thyroid follicular epithelial cells (increased Ki-67 positive cells).

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 38)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 21 through 72

Reference [PubMed Link]
Chang SC, Ehresman DJ, Bjork JA, Wallace KB, Parker GA, Stump DG, Butenhoff JL. 2009. Gestational and lactational exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (K+PFOS) in rats: toxicokinetics, thyroid hormone status, and related gene expression. Reprod Toxicol 27(3-4):387-399.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased T4 concentrations beginning on post-natal day 14 persisting through post-natal day 35 in those treated in utero and lactionally. T4 concentrations were also decreased in those treated in utero only and lactionally only beginning on post-natal day 21 continuing through post-natal day 35.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 3.2 mg/kg feed

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 35 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 35

Reference [PubMed Link]
Yu WG, Liu W, Jin YH, Liu XH, Wang FQ, Liu L, Nakayama SF. 2009. Prenatal and postnatal impact of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on rat development: a cross-foster study on chemical burden and thyroid hormone system. Environ Sci Technol 43(21):8416-8422.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased PPARγ mRNA levels on post-natal day 14. Alterations in the expression of genes regulated by PPARα and CAR including cyp4a14, cyp2b10, Acox1, Pdk4, and Mel at various time-points.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational days 14 and 17 and post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28, 42, 63

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Tatum-Gibbs K, Das KP, Lau C. 2012. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):491-505.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Increases in insulin and leptin in female mice 21-33 weeks of age exposed to both 0.01 an 0.1 mg/kg in utero

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.01, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0. 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from birth to 79 weeks

Reference [PubMed Link]
Hines EP, White SS, Stanko JP, Gibbs-Flournoy EA, Lau C, Fenton SE. 2009. Phenotypic dichotomy following developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in female CD-1 mice: Low doses induce elevated serum leptin and insulin, and overweight in mid-life. Mol Cell Endocrinol 304(1-2):97-105.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Reduced ossification of calcaria, enlarged fontanel and decreased ossification sites in proximal phalanges in forelimbs at 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg; decreased ossification sites in proximal phalanges hindlimbs at 1.0 mg/kg. Increased percentage of pups with limb and tail defects at 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0, 20.0, 40.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from gestational day 18 through 60 weeks

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Narotsky MG, Rogers JM, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ. 2006. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid exposure during pregnancy in the mouse. Toxicol Sci 90(2):510-518.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increased number of sternal defects at 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18

Reference [PubMed Link]
Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Barbee BD, Richards JH, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA, Lau C. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: maternal and prenatal evaluations. Toxicol Sci 74(2):369-381.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased serum T4 levels on post-natal days 7 and 14

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 3.2 mg/kg in feed

Other doses tested: 32 mg/kg in feed

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – post-natal day 14 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 35)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1, 7, and 14

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wang F, Liu W, Jin Y, Dai J, Zhao H, Xie Q, Liu X, Yu W, Ma J. 2011. Interaction of PFOS and BDE-47 co-exposure on thyroid hormone levels and TH-related gene and protein expression in developing rat brains. Toxicol Sci 121(2):279-291.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

At 2.0 mg/kg and higher, decreased serum total T4, which recovered by weaning, and decreased free T4 levels, which persisted through post-natal day 35; no changes in T3 or TSH

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: from birth through 35 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Stanton ME, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci 74(2):382-392.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increased sternal defects at 2.0 mg/kg. Increased number of ossified proximal phalanges in hindlimbs at 3.0 mg/kg. Decreases in the number of ossified proximal phalanges in forelimbs at 5.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 14)

Age of measurement: gestational day 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Barbee BD, Richards JH, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA, Lau C. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: maternal and prenatal evaluations. Toxicol Sci 74(2):369-381.