The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

In the spleen PPARα mRNA levels were increased on post-natal day 1 with increases in protein expression on post-natal day 14. PPARβ mRNA levels were increased on post-natal day 1. PPARγ protein expression was increased on post-natal day 14. Alterations in genes regulated by PPARα and PXR including cyp4a14, cyp3a11, Pdk4, and Mel at various time-points.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational days 14 and 17 and post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28, 42, 63

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Tatum-Gibbs K, Das KP, Lau C. 2012. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):491-505.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased PPARβ protein levels on post-natal day 14. PPARγ protein expression was increased on post-natal day 14. Increases in genes regulated by PPARα and PXR including cyp4a14, cyp3a11, and Pdk4.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational days 14 and 17 and post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28, 42, 63

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Tatum-Gibbs K, Das KP, Lau C. 2012. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):491-505.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decrease in relative spleen weight in those exposed to 3.0 mg/kg

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.01, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0. 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from birth to 79 weeks

Reference [PubMed Link]
Hines EP, White SS, Stanko JP, Gibbs-Flournoy EA, Lau C, Fenton SE. 2009. Phenotypic dichotomy following developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in female CD-1 mice: Low doses induce elevated serum leptin and insulin, and overweight in mid-life. Mol Cell Endocrinol 304(1-2):97-105.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreases in natural killer cell activity at 8 weeks in males at 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg and in females at 5.0 mg/kg. Decreased specific IgM response in males at 8 weeks of age in 5.0 mg/kg exposure group. Decrease in B220 splenic lymphocyte subpopulation in females at 4 weeks of age after 5.0 mg/kg exposure. Decreases in CD4+ and CD3+ thymic lymphocytic subpopulations in males at 8 weeks of age after 5.0 mg/kg exposure.

Subjects: B6C3F1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 4 weeks and 8 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Keil DE, Mehlmann T, Butterworth L, Peden-Adams MM. 2008. Gestational exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate suppresses immune function in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Sci 103(1):77-85.