The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight at 2 and 28 days of age in males and at 2 days of age in females

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.4 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: Initial dose was followed by weekly maintenance doses of 0.08 μg/kg during mating, pregnancy, and lactational periods

Route of administration: delivered orally via gavage

Exposure duration: preconception – weaning (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ikeda M, Tamura M, Yamashita J, Suzuki C, Tomita T. 2005. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F-2 progeny. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 206(3):351-355.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased percent of male pups born to treated male offspring mated with untreated females

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.4 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: Initial dose was followed by weekly maintenance doses of 0.08 μg/kg during mating, pregnancy, and lactational periods

Route of administration: delivered orally via gavage

Exposure duration: preconception – weaning (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ikeda M, Tamura M, Yamashita J, Suzuki C, Tomita T. 2005. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F-2 progeny. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 206(3):351-355.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight at 120 days of age at 0.053 μg/kg

Subjects: Wistar(Han) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.0028, 0.0093 or 0.053 μg/kg/day

Route of administration: delivered in daily diet

Exposure duration: 12 weeks prior to mating – birth (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through 120 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Bell DR, Clode S, Fan MQ, Fernandes A, Foster PMD, Jiang T, Loizou G, Macnicoll A, Miller BG, Rose M, Tran L, White S. 2007. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the developing male Wistar(Han) rat. II: Chronic dosing causes developmental delay. Toxicol Sci 99(1):224-233.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased offspring survival through day 4 at 0.053 μg/kg /day

Subjects: Wistar(Han) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.0028, 0.0093 or 0.053 μg/kg/day

Route of administration: delivered in daily diet

Exposure duration: 12 weeks prior to mating – birth (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through 120 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Bell DR, Clode S, Fan MQ, Fernandes A, Foster PMD, Jiang T, Loizou G, Macnicoll A, Miller BG, Rose M, Tran L, White S. 2007. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the developing male Wistar(Han) rat. II: Chronic dosing causes developmental delay. Toxicol Sci 99(1):224-233.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased ratio of liver weight to body weight at 120 days of age at 0.0028 and 0.053 μg/kg/day

Subjects: Wistar(Han) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.0028, 0.0093 or 0.053 μg/kg/day

Route of administration: delivered in daily diet

Exposure duration: 12 weeks prior to mating – birth (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through 120 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Bell DR, Clode S, Fan MQ, Fernandes A, Foster PMD, Jiang T, Loizou G, Macnicoll A, Miller BG, Rose M, Tran L, White S. 2007. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the developing male Wistar(Han) rat. II: Chronic dosing causes developmental delay. Toxicol Sci 99(1):224-233.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight in F2 and F3 generation at 0.01 μg/kg/day

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.001 or 0.01 μg/kg bw/day

Other doses tested: 0.1 μg/kg bw/day

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: 90 days prior to mating – fed daily (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 90 days prior to mating through 396 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Murray FJ, Smith FA, Nitschke KD, Humiston CG, Kociba RJ, Schwetz BA. 1979 Sep 15. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 50(2):241-52.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased fertility, litter size, gestation survival, post-natal survival and generational survival across several generations

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.001 or 0.01 μg/kg bw/day

Other doses tested: 0.1 μg/kg bw/day

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: 90 days prior to mating through 307 days of age – fed daily (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 90 days prior to mating through 396 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Murray FJ, Smith FA, Nitschke KD, Humiston CG, Kociba RJ, Schwetz BA. 1979 Sep 15. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 50(2):241-52.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased incidence of slightly dilated renal pelvis in F1 generation at 21 days of age at 0.001 μg/kg/day

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.001 or 0.01 μg/kg bw/day

Other doses tested: 0.1 μg/kg bw/day

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: 90 days prior to mating – fed daily (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 90 days prior to mating through 396 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Murray FJ, Smith FA, Nitschke KD, Humiston CG, Kociba RJ, Schwetz BA. 1979 Sep 15. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 50(2):241-52.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased relative weight of liver in F3 generation at 0.01 μg/kg/day

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.001 or 0.01 μg/kg bw/day

Other doses tested: 0.1 μg/kg bw/day

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: 90 days prior to mating – fed daily (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 90 days prior to mating through 396 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Murray FJ, Smith FA, Nitschke KD, Humiston CG, Kociba RJ, Schwetz BA. 1979 Sep 15. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 50(2):241-52.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight

Subjects: Jc1:ICR mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 10.0 nM

Route of administration: in vitro culture

Exposure duration: 1-cell stage of preimplantation embryos – blastocyst stage of preimplantation embryos (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: gestational day 14

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wu Q, Ohsako S, Ishimura R, Suzuki JS, Tohyama C. 2004. Exposure of mouse preimplantation embryos to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alters the methylation status of imprinted genes H19 and Igf2. Biol Reprod 70(6):1790-1797.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased glucose uptake in 5 and 10 day cultured P19 embryoid bodies (EB); increased glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT1) mRNA and GLUT3 mRNA in 2 day EB; decreased GLUT1 mRNA in 5, 10 and 15 day EB; decreased GLUT3 mRNA in 15 day EB; increased GLUT4 mRNA in 5 day EB; decreased GLUT4 mRNA in 2 day EB; decreased GLUT8 mRNA in 5 and 15 day EB

Subjects: C3H/He, P19 embryoid body carcinoma cells mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 10.0 nM

Route of administration: in vitro culture

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 8)

Age of measurement: 2 through 15 days in culture

Reference [PubMed Link]
Tonack S, Kind K, Thompson JG, Wobus AM, Fischer B, Santos AN. 2007. Dioxin affects glucose transport via the arylhydrocarbon receptor signal cascade in pluripotent embryonic carcinoma cells. Endocrinology 148(12):5902-5912.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased expression level of imprinted gene H19; increased total DNA methyltransferase activity

Subjects: Jc1:ICR mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 10.0 nM

Route of administration: in vitro culture

Exposure duration: 1-cell stage of preimplantation embryos – blastocyst stage of preimplantation embryos (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 7)

Age of measurement: gestational day 14

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wu Q, Ohsako S, Ishimura R, Suzuki JS, Tohyama C. 2004. Exposure of mouse preimplantation embryos to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alters the methylation status of imprinted genes H19 and Igf2. Biol Reprod 70(6):1790-1797.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased number of neutrophils in the lung for gestational plus lactational exposure following infection with influenza virus; increased interferon gamma (IFNγ) level in lung lavage fluid for gestational and lactational exposure following infection with influenza virus; increased number of IFNγ+ cells in bronchoalveolar (BAL) lavage comprising GR1+, CD11b+, F4/80+ , and NK1.1+ phenotypes in virus infected offspring of TCDD treated dams in which offspring received bone marrow cells from untreated control donors

Subjects: C57BL/6 mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw on gestational days 0, 7, and 14 and at 2 days of age

Route of administration: dissolved in peanut oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 (cross-fostered at 2 days of age) – last dose at 2 days of age (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: eight through 10 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Hogaboam JP, Moore AJ, Lawrence BP. 2008 Mar. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor affects distinct tissue compartments during ontogeny of the immune system. Toxicol Sci 102(1):160-70.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased pup survival indices on post-natal days 4 and 21 in F2 and F3 generations.

Subjects: C57BL/6 mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 2.0 ng/L

Route of administration: dissolved in DMSO and delivered in drinking water

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – daily in drinking water (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1, 4, 21, and 35

Reference [PubMed Link]
Huang L, Huang R, Ran XR, Liu HY, Zhang Y, Dai LJ, Li B. 2011. Three-generation experiment showed female C57BL/6J mice drink drainage canal water containing low level of TCDD-like activity causing high pup mortality. J Toxicol Sci 36(6):713-724.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased percent of normal embryos at compaction and blastocyst stages of pre-implantation embryos

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.05 (acute or chronic)or 1.0 μg/kg bw (acute)

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: preconception – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 2)

Age of measurement: gestational days 4.5 or 5.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Hutt KJ, Shi Z, Albertini DF, Petroff BK. 2008. The environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin disrupts morphogenesis of the rat pre-implantation embryo. BMC Dev Biol 8:1.