The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased hydronephrotic incidence and severity for all exposure groups at 25 and 67 days of age, primarily in the right kidney

Subjects: C57BL/6N mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 12.0μg/kg

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 and cross-fostered at birth – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 3)

Age of measurement: birth through 67 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Couture-Haws L, Harris MW, Lockhart AC, Birnbaum LS. 1991. Evaluation of the persistence of hydronephrosis induced in mice following in utero and/or lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 107(3):402-412.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased relative liver weight at 25 days of age with lactional only exposure and with in utero plus lactational exposure

Subjects: C57BL/6N mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 12.0μg/kg

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 and cross-fostered at birth – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 3)

Age of measurement: birth through 67 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Couture-Haws L, Harris MW, Lockhart AC, Birnbaum LS. 1991. Evaluation of the persistence of hydronephrosis induced in mice following in utero and/or lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 107(3):402-412.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased fetal mortality at 3 and 6 μg/kg and increased fetal mortality at 24 μg/kg

Subjects: C57BL/6N mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 6, 9, 12 or 24μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 3)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18

Reference [PubMed Link]
Couture LA, Harris MW, Birnbaum LS. 1990 Jul. Characterization of the peak period of sensitivity for the induction of hydronephrosis in C57BL/6N mice following exposure to 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Fundam Appl Toxicol 15(1):142-50.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased incidence of unilateral and bilateral hydronephrosis; increased severity of renal lesions (always greater in the right kidney)

Subjects: C57BL/6N mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 6, 9, 12 or 24μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 6 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 3)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18

Reference [PubMed Link]
Couture LA, Harris MW, Birnbaum LS. 1990 Jul. Characterization of the peak period of sensitivity for the induction of hydronephrosis in C57BL/6N mice following exposure to 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Fundam Appl Toxicol 15(1):142-50.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight at 42 days of age

Subjects: Slc. Wistar rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.01 μg/kg bw in 5 weekly doses

Route of administration: administered sub-cutaneously

Exposure duration: gestational day 7 – 5 weekly doses (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 17 and 42 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ohyama K, Ohta M, Sano T, Sato K, Nakagomi Y, Shimura Y, Yamano Y. 2007. Maternal exposure of low dose of TCDD modulates the expression of estrogen receptor subunits of male gonads in offspring. J Vet Med Sci 69(6):619-625.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mRNA and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) mRNA at 42 days of age; increased expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) at 17 days of age

Subjects: Slc. Wistar rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.01 μg/kg bw in 5 weekly doses

Route of administration: administered sub-cutaneously

Exposure duration: gestational day 7 – 5 weekly doses (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 17 and 42 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ohyama K, Ohta M, Sano T, Sato K, Nakagomi Y, Shimura Y, Yamano Y. 2007. Maternal exposure of low dose of TCDD modulates the expression of estrogen receptor subunits of male gonads in offspring. J Vet Med Sci 69(6):619-625.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in 40 day old females and 40 and 120 day old males

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1 μg/kg bw in 5 doses

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and injected subcutaneously

Exposure duration: gestational day 7 – 5 doses (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 40 and 120 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Iba MM, Fung J. 2001. Pulmonary CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 levels and activities in adult male and female offspring of rats exposed during gestation and lactation to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Biochem Pharmacol 62(5):617-626.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight in females at birth and 3 days of age

Subjects: Long Evans hooded rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 8 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 3)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Gray LE, Kelce WR, Monosson E, Ostby JS, Birnbaum LS. 1995. Exposure to TCDD during development permanently alters reproductive function in male Long Evans rats and hamsters: Reduced ejaculated and epididymal sperm numbers and sex accessory gland weights in offspring with normal androgenic status. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 131(1):108-118.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased liver weight

Subjects: Long Evans hooded rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 8 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 2 to day 1 of week 3)

Age of measurement: in late adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Gray LE, Kelce WR, Monosson E, Ostby JS, Birnbaum LS. 1995. Exposure to TCDD during development permanently alters reproductive function in male Long Evans rats and hamsters: Reduced ejaculated and epididymal sperm numbers and sex accessory gland weights in offspring with normal androgenic status. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 131(1):108-118.