The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased incidence of unilateral and bilateral hydronephrosis; increased severity of renal lesions (always greater in the right kidney)

Subjects: C57BL/6N mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 6, 9, 12 or 24μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 8 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18

Reference [PubMed Link]
Couture LA, Harris MW, Birnbaum LS. 1990 Jul. Characterization of the peak period of sensitivity for the induction of hydronephrosis in C57BL/6N mice following exposure to 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Fundam Appl Toxicol 15(1):142-50.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight at gestational day 19

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: additional doses given daily for 10 days

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 9 – gestational day 19 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: gestational day 19 through 44 days of age

Reference
Nishijo M, Kuriwaki JI, Hori E, Tawara K, Nakagawa H, Nishijo H. 2007. Effects of maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on fetal brain growth and motor and behavioral development in offspring rats. Toxicol Lett 173(1):41-47.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased liver microsomal UDP-GT activity toward 4-nitrophenol and significant liver microsomol EROD activity at both doses

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.25 or 1.0 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – gestational day 16 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: 21 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Seo BW, Li MH, Hansen LG, Moore RW, Peterson RE, Schantz SL. 1995. Effects of gestational and lactational exposure to coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on thyroid hormone concentrations in weanling rats. Toxicol Lett 78(3):253-262.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased liver weight

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1 μg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – gestational day 16 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through 80 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Seo BW, Sparks AJ, Medora K, Amin S, Schantz SL. 1999. Learning and memory in rats gestationally and lactationally exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Neurotoxicology & Teratology 21(3):231-239.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1 or 0.2 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – gestational day 16 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through young adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Seo BW, Powers BE, Widholm JJ, Schantz SL. 2000. Radial arm maze performance in rats following gestational and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Neurotoxicology & Teratology 22(4):511-519.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased relative liver weight at weaning at 0.2 μg/kg

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.1 or 0.2 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – gestational day 16 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through young adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Seo BW, Powers BE, Widholm JJ, Schantz SL. 2000. Radial arm maze performance in rats following gestational and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Neurotoxicology & Teratology 22(4):511-519.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight at 7 days of age at 3.0 μg/kg; decreased body length on gestational day 10 at 1.5 μg/kg, and at 7 days of age at 3.0 μg/kg

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.5 or 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 6.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: gestational day 17 through post-natal day 7

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kransler KM, Tonucci DA, Mcgarrigle BP, Napoli JL, Olson JR. 2007. Gestational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters retinoid homeostasis in maternal and perinatal tissues of the Holtzman rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 224(1):29-38.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased retinyl palmitate concentration at 3.0 μg/kg); increased retinol ester concentration at 7 days of age at 3.0 μg/kg; increased retinol concentration on gestational day 20 at 1.5 μg/kg

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.5 or 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 6.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: gestational day 17 through post-natal day 7

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kransler KM, Tonucci DA, Mcgarrigle BP, Napoli JL, Olson JR. 2007. Gestational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters retinoid homeostasis in maternal and perinatal tissues of the Holtzman rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 224(1):29-38.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased relative lung weight at 7 days of age; decreased concentrations of retinyl ester and retinyl palmitate at various ages and doses; decreased retinol concentration at 7 days of age at 3.0 μg/kg

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.5 or 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 6.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: gestational day 17 through post-natal day 7

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kransler KM, Tonucci DA, Mcgarrigle BP, Napoli JL, Olson JR. 2007. Gestational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters retinoid homeostasis in maternal and perinatal tissues of the Holtzman rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 224(1):29-38.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased relative liver weight at 7 days of age; decreased concentrations of retinyl ester, retinyl palmitate, and retinol at 7 days of age; decreased retinyl palmitate hydrolase activity with or without retinol binding protein (Rbp1) on gestational day 20 at 1.5 μg/kg and at 7 days of age at 3.0 μg/kg; increased cytochrome P450 content and EROD activity on gestational day 20 at 1.5 μg/kg and at 7 days of age at 1.5 and 3.0 μg/kg

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.5 or 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 6.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: gestational day 17 through post-natal day 7

Reference [PubMed Link]
Kransler KM, Tonucci DA, Mcgarrigle BP, Napoli JL, Olson JR. 2007. Gestational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters retinoid homeostasis in maternal and perinatal tissues of the Holtzman rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 224(1):29-38.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased mortality at day 1 after birth

Subjects: Holtzman rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Flaws JA, Sommer RJ, Silbergeld EK, Peterson RE, Hirshfield AN. 1997. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces genital dysmorphogenesis in the female rat. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 147(2):351-362.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased body weight

Subjects: C57BL/6N mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 6, 9, 12 or 24μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18

Reference [PubMed Link]
Couture LA, Harris MW, Birnbaum LS. 1990 Jul. Characterization of the peak period of sensitivity for the induction of hydronephrosis in C57BL/6N mice following exposure to 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Fundam Appl Toxicol 15(1):142-50.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased incidence of unilateral and bilateral hydronephrosis; increased severity of renal lesions (always greater in the right kidney)

Subjects: C57BL/6N mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 6, 9, 12 or 24μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18

Reference [PubMed Link]
Couture LA, Harris MW, Birnbaum LS. 1990 Jul. Characterization of the peak period of sensitivity for the induction of hydronephrosis in C57BL/6N mice following exposure to 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Fundam Appl Toxicol 15(1):142-50.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight of males and females

Subjects: Line C (highly sensitive to TCDD) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: 40 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miettinen HM, Alaluusua S, Tuomisto J, Viluksela M. 2002. Effect of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure on rat molar development: The role of exposure time. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 184(1):57-66.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased number of stillborn; increased mortality after culling for pups exposed only in utero

Subjects: Line C (highly sensitive to TCDD) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 11 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: 40 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miettinen HM, Alaluusua S, Tuomisto J, Viluksela M. 2002. Effect of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure on rat molar development: The role of exposure time. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 184(1):57-66.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased number of fetuses and decreased frequencies of open eye malformation for EGFR -/- genotypes at 4.4 μg/kg

Subjects: EGFR + / - mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.5 or 4.4 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 19.1, 29.6, 30.1, 42.0, 55.6, or 106.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 10 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 3 to day 1 of week 4)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miettinen HM, Huuskonen H, Partanen AM, Miettinen P, Tuomisto JT, Pohjanvirta R, Tuomisto J. 2004. Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor deficiency and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlor.odibenzo-p-dioxin on fetal development in mice. Toxicol Lett 150(3):285-291.