The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight at 1.0 μg/kg

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.04, 0.20, or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 13 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: 14 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Haavisto TE, Myllymaki SA, Adamsson NA, Brokken LJS, Viluksela M, Toppari J, Paranko J. 2006. The effects of maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on testicular steroidogenesis in infantile male rats. Int J Androl 29(2):313-322.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight at 1.0 μg/kg at 10 through 16 days of age in females and 12 through 16 days in males

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.04, 0.2 or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil, sonicated, and delivered via gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 13 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: 10 through 16 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Myllymaki SA, Haavisto TE, Brokken LJS, Viluksela M, Toppari J, Paranko J. 2005. In utero and lactational exposure to TCDD; Steroidogenic outcomes differ in male and female rat pups. Toxicol Sci 88(2):534-544.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased incidence of unilateral and bilateral hydronephrosis; increased severity of renal lesions (always greater in the right kidney)

Subjects: C57BL/6N mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 3.0 μg/kg bw

Other doses tested: 6, 9, 12 or 24μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 12 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18

Reference [PubMed Link]
Couture LA, Harris MW, Birnbaum LS. 1990 Jul. Characterization of the peak period of sensitivity for the induction of hydronephrosis in C57BL/6N mice following exposure to 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Fundam Appl Toxicol 15(1):142-50.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight of males and females

Subjects: Line C (highly sensitive to TCDD) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 13 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: 40 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miettinen HM, Alaluusua S, Tuomisto J, Viluksela M. 2002. Effect of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure on rat molar development: The role of exposure time. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 184(1):57-66.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased mortality after culling for pups exposed only in utero

Subjects: Line C (highly sensitive to TCDD) rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 13 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: 40 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Miettinen HM, Alaluusua S, Tuomisto J, Viluksela M. 2002. Effect of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure on rat molar development: The role of exposure time. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 184(1):57-66.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased body weight in females exposed to 5.0 μg/kg at 48 weeks of age

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 2.5 or 5.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 12 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: 48 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Mustafa A, Holladay SD, Witonsky S, Sponenberg DP, Karpuzoglu E, Gogal RM Jr. 2011. A single mid-gestation exposure to TCDD yields a postnatal autoimmune signature, differing by sex, in early geriatric C57BL/6 mice. Toxicology 290(2-3):156-168.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased IgG disposition at 2.5 and 5.0 μg/kg and C3 disposition at 2.5 μg/kg in the kidneys of males. Increased number of inflammatory foci in parenchyma of males exposed to 5.0 μg/kg

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 2.5 or 5.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 12 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: 48 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Mustafa A, Holladay SD, Witonsky S, Sponenberg DP, Karpuzoglu E, Gogal RM Jr. 2011. A single mid-gestation exposure to TCDD yields a postnatal autoimmune signature, differing by sex, in early geriatric C57BL/6 mice. Toxicology 290(2-3):156-168.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased relative liver weight on post-natal days 14 and 25. Increased in the number of foci of extramedullary hematopoiesis on post-natal day 14.

Subjects: C57BL/6 mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 5.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 12 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 14, 25, and 46

Reference [PubMed Link]
Weinstein DA, Gogal RM Jr, Mustafa A, Prater MR, Holladay SD. 2008. Mid-gestation exposure of C57BL/6 mice to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin causes postnatal morphologic changes in the spleen and liver. Toxicol Pathol 36(5):705-713.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA

Subjects: C57BL/6J mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 5.0 μg/kg

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered orally

Exposure duration: gestational day 12.5 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Tanaka J, Yonemoto J, Zaha H, Kiyama R, Sone H. 2007. Estrogen-responsive genes newly found to be modified by TCDD exposure in human cell lines and mouse systems. Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology 272(1-2):38-49.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased body weight of Han/Wistar rats at 1.0 μg/kg

Subjects: Han/Wistar, Long Evans and Sprague -Dawley rats

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 0.05 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 13.5 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: gestational day 19.5

Reference [PubMed Link]
Haavisto T, Nurmela K, Pohjanvirta R, Huuskonen H, El-Gehani F, Paranko J. 2001. Prenatal testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels in male rats exposed during pregnancy to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and diethylstilbestrol. Mol Cell Endocrinol 178(1-2):169-179.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Decreased litter size of DBA/2J progeny; decreased pup survival for C57BL/2J mice between 4 and 35 days of age at co-exposure to TCDD and high fat diet

Subjects: C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and delivered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestation day 12.5 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: birth through 35 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
La Merrill M, Kuruvilla BS, Pomp D, Birnbaum LS, Threadgill DW. 2009. Dietary fat alters body composition, mammary development, and cytochrome p450 induction after maternal TCDD exposure in DBA/2J mice with low-responsive aryl hydrocarbon receptors. Environ Health Perspect 117(9):1414-1419.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Dioxin (TCDD)

Increased hepatic Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 expression at puberty in DBA/2J female mice independent of diet; decreased DMBA induction of hepatic Cyp1b1 among mice fed high fat diets

Subjects: C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice

Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD)

Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw

Route of administration: dissolved in olive oil and delivered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestation day 12.5 – single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 5 to day 1 of week 6)

Age of measurement: birth through 35 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
La Merrill M, Kuruvilla BS, Pomp D, Birnbaum LS, Threadgill DW. 2009. Dietary fat alters body composition, mammary development, and cytochrome p450 induction after maternal TCDD exposure in DBA/2J mice with low-responsive aryl hydrocarbon receptors. Environ Health Perspect 117(9):1414-1419.