The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for Phthalates (BBP)

Increased body weight at birth

Subjects: AP rats

Chemical: Phthalates (BBP)

Low doses tested: 1000 μg/l

Route of administration: dissolved and fed in drinking water

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 22 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: from birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ashby J, Tinwell H, Lefevre PA, Odum J, Paton D, Millward SW, Tittensor S, Brooks AN. 1997. Normal sexual development of rats exposed to butyl benzyl phthalate from conception to weaning. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology 26(1 Part 1):102-118.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Phthalates (BBP)

Increased liver weight among males at 90 days of age

Subjects: AP rats

Chemical: Phthalates (BBP)

Low doses tested: 1000 μg/l

Route of administration: dissolved and fed in drinking water

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 22 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: from birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
Ashby J, Tinwell H, Lefevre PA, Odum J, Paton D, Millward SW, Tittensor S, Brooks AN. 1997. Normal sexual development of rats exposed to butyl benzyl phthalate from conception to weaning. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology 26(1 Part 1):102-118.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Phthalates (DEHP)

Decreased body weights and fat percentage in females and males.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Phthalates (DEHP)

Low doses tested: 1.25 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 6.25 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through week 27

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lin Y, Wei J, Li Y, Chen J, Zhou Z, Song L, Wei Z, Lv Z, Chen X, Xia W, Xu S. 2011. Developmental exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate impairs endocrine pancreas and leads to long-term adverse effects on glucose homeostasis in the rat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 301(3):E527-E538.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Phthalates (DEHP)

Decreased body weights on post-natal days 21 and 42. Decreased abdominal fat in females.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: Phthalates (DEHP)

Low doses tested: 0.05 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered in diet daily

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 21-42

Reference [PubMed Link]
Pocar P, Fiandanese N, Secchi C, Berrini A, Fischer B, Schmidt JS, Schaedlich K, Borromeo V. 2012. Exposure to di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in utero and during lactation causes long-term pituitary-gonadal axis disruption in male and female mouse offspring. Endocrinology 153(2):937-948.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Phthalates (DEHP)

Increased visceral fat in both males and females treated with 0.05 mg/kg. Increased body weight in females on post-natal days 21 and 84; increased body weights in males at post-natal day 84

Subjects: C3H/N mice

Chemical: Phthalates (DEHP)

Low doses tested: 0.05 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 5.0 and 500.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: delivered in diet daily

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 21 and 84

Reference [PubMed Link]
Schmidt JS, Schaedlich K, Fiandanese N, Pocar P, Fischer B. 2012. Effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on female fertility and adipogenesis in C3H/N mice. Environ Health Perspect 120(8):1123-1129.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Phthalates (DEHP)

Decreased body weight at weaning in those treated with 0.25 mg/kg

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Phthalates (DEHP)

Low doses tested: 0.25 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 6.25 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in tocopherol-stripped corn oil and administered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal week 0, 3, 15, 21 and 33

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wei Z, Song L, Wei J, Chen T, Chen J, Lin Y, Xia W, Xu B, Li X, Chen X, Li Y, Xu S. 2012. Maternal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate alters kidney development through the renin-angiotensin system in offspring. Toxicol Lett 212(2):212-221.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Phthalates (DEHP)

Increased blood pressure in both males in females.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Phthalates (DEHP)

Low doses tested: 0.25 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 6.25 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in tocopherol-stripped corn oil and administered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal week 0, 3, 15, 21 and 33

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wei Z, Song L, Wei J, Chen T, Chen J, Lin Y, Xia W, Xu B, Li X, Chen X, Li Y, Xu S. 2012. Maternal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate alters kidney development through the renin-angiotensin system in offspring. Toxicol Lett 212(2):212-221.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for Phthalates (DEHP)

Decreased relative kidney weight in females exposed to 0.25 mg/kg at 15 weeks of age. Changes in several glomerular parameters. Alterations in indicators of kidney function for example, creatinine clearance and serum urea nitrogen in males and females and serum creatinine and total uninary protein in females only. Increased PPARα expression levels at weaning and increased PPARγ expression at day 0 and weaning. Alterations in the expression of other genes involved in pathways and structure.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: Phthalates (DEHP)

Low doses tested: 0.25 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 6.25 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in tocopherol-stripped corn oil and administered by gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal week 0, 3, 15, 21 and 33

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wei Z, Song L, Wei J, Chen T, Chen J, Lin Y, Xia W, Xu B, Li X, Chen X, Li Y, Xu S. 2012. Maternal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate alters kidney development through the renin-angiotensin system in offspring. Toxicol Lett 212(2):212-221.