The weeks shown in color represent the start and end points of chemical exposure for each study.

Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increased body weight at age of attainment of both balanopreputial separation and vaginal patency.

Subjects: Crl:CD rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 38)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 61

Reference [PubMed Link]
Butenhoff JL, Ehresman DJ, Chang SC, Parker GA, Stump DG. 2009. Gestational and lactational exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (K+PFOS) in rats: developmental neurotoxicity. Reprod Toxicol 27(3-4):319-330.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increased hepatic mRNA levels of cyp4a1, cyp7a1, cyp2b2 and decreased ACoA on post-natal day 21 in males exposed to 1.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 38)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 21 through 72

Reference [PubMed Link]
Chang SC, Ehresman DJ, Bjork JA, Wallace KB, Parker GA, Stump DG, Butenhoff JL. 2009. Gestational and lactational exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (K+PFOS) in rats: toxicokinetics, thyroid hormone status, and related gene expression. Reprod Toxicol 27(3-4):387-399.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased pup weight/litter at 1.6 and 3.2 mg/kg dosages on post-natal days 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21.

Subjects: Crl:CD rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.4, 1.6, 3.2 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: pre-conception – post-natal day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 38)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Luebker DJ, Case MT, York RG, Moore JA, Hansen KJ, Butenhoff JL. 2005. Two-generation reproduction and cross-foster studies of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats. Toxicology 215(1-2):126-148.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased pup weight/litter in those exposed lactationally only on post-natal days 7, 14, 21; in those exposed in utero only and those exposed in utero and lactionally, on post-natal days 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21.

Subjects: Crl:CD rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.6 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: pre-conception – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Luebker DJ, Case MT, York RG, Moore JA, Hansen KJ, Butenhoff JL. 2005. Two-generation reproduction and cross-foster studies of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats. Toxicology 215(1-2):126-148.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased offspring survival at 3.2 mg/kg exposure between post-natal days 1 -4. Delayed pinna unfolding at 1.6 mg/kg exposure group.

Subjects: Crl:CD rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.4, 1.6, 3.2 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: pre-conception – post-natal day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 38)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Luebker DJ, Case MT, York RG, Moore JA, Hansen KJ, Butenhoff JL. 2005. Two-generation reproduction and cross-foster studies of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats. Toxicology 215(1-2):126-148.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreases in the survival of pups on post-natal day 4 in those treated both in utero and lactationally.

Subjects: Crl:CD rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.6 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: pre-conception – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Luebker DJ, Case MT, York RG, Moore JA, Hansen KJ, Butenhoff JL. 2005. Two-generation reproduction and cross-foster studies of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats. Toxicology 215(1-2):126-148.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increases in the number of peroxisomes/ hepatocytes in pups exposed in utero

Subjects: Crl:CD rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.6 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: pre-conception – post-natal day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Luebker DJ, Case MT, York RG, Moore JA, Hansen KJ, Butenhoff JL. 2005. Two-generation reproduction and cross-foster studies of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats. Toxicology 215(1-2):126-148.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased fetal body weight at 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg on gestational day 18.

Subjects: ICR mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18

Reference [PubMed Link]
Yahia D, El-Nasser MA, Abedel-Latif M, Tsukuba C, Yoshida M, Sato I, Tsuda S. 2010. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure to pregnant mice on reproduction. J Toxicol Sci 35(4):527-533.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased body weight at 5.0 mg/kg on post-natal day 4.

Subjects: ICR mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – gestational day 18 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 4

Reference [PubMed Link]
Yahia D, El-Nasser MA, Abedel-Latif M, Tsukuba C, Yoshida M, Sato I, Tsuda S. 2010. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure to pregnant mice on reproduction. J Toxicol Sci 35(4):527-533.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Reduced survival of pups at post-natal day 4 in those exposed to 5.0 mg/kg PFOA.

Subjects: ICR mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – gestational day 18 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 11)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 4

Reference [PubMed Link]
Yahia D, El-Nasser MA, Abedel-Latif M, Tsukuba C, Yoshida M, Sato I, Tsuda S. 2010. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure to pregnant mice on reproduction. J Toxicol Sci 35(4):527-533.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Hepatic mRNA expression of transthyretin was elevated in those treated both in utero and lactionally.

Subjects: Wistar rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 3.2 mg/kg feed

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: gestational day 0 – post-natal day 35 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 35

Reference [PubMed Link]
Yu WG, Liu W, Jin YH, Liu XH, Wang FQ, Liu L, Nakayama SF. 2009. Prenatal and postnatal impact of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on rat development: a cross-foster study on chemical burden and thyroid hormone system. Environ Sci Technol 43(21):8416-8422.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased weight in male pups on post-natal day 9, 10, and 22 and decreases in female pups on post-natal days 7, 10, and 22.

Subjects: 129S1/SvlmJ mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 22

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wolf CJ, Schmid JE, Das KP, Zehr RD, Helfant L, Nakayama S, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ, Lau C. 2007. Perfluorooctanoic acid induced developmental toxicity in the mouse is dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci 98(2):571-581.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Reduced survival of pups in those exposed to 0.6 and 1.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: 129S1/SvlmJ mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 22

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wolf CJ, Schmid JE, Das KP, Zehr RD, Helfant L, Nakayama S, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ, Lau C. 2007. Perfluorooctanoic acid induced developmental toxicity in the mouse is dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci 98(2):571-581.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Increased relative liver weight in those exposed to 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 mg/kg on post-natal day 22

Subjects: 129S1/SvlmJ mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal day 1 through 22

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wolf CJ, Schmid JE, Das KP, Zehr RD, Helfant L, Nakayama S, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ, Lau C. 2007. Perfluorooctanoic acid induced developmental toxicity in the mouse is dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci 98(2):571-581.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased PPARγ mRNA levels on post-natal days 14 and 21 with increased PPARβ protein levels on post-natal day 21. Alterations in genes regulated by PPARα and PXR including cyp4a14, cyp3a11, Acox1, Pdk4, and Mel at various time-points.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational days 14 and 17 and post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28, 42, 63

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Tatum-Gibbs K, Das KP, Lau C. 2012. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):491-505.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Increased expression of PPARγ mRNA on post-natal days 1 and 14 with decreased PPARβ mRNA expression on post-natal day 21. Alterations in genes regulated by PPARα, CAR, and PXR including cyp4a14, cyp2b10, cyp3a11, Pdk4, and Mel at various time-points.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational days 14 and 17 and post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28, 42, 63

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Tatum-Gibbs K, Das KP, Lau C. 2012. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):491-505.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased PPARα protein expression on post-natal day 21 with decreases on mRNA expression on post-natal day 14. PPARβ mRNA expression was decreased on post-natal days 14 and 28 however, protein levels remained unchanged from control levels at all ages. PPARγ mRNA expression was increased post-natal day 1 with no changes to protein expression. Alterations in genes regulated by PPARα including cyp4a14, Acox1, Pdk4, Mel, Ehhadh, Acaala, Pgc1, and Cpt1at various time-points.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational days 14 and 17 and post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28, 42, 63

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Tatum-Gibbs K, Das KP, Lau C. 2012. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):491-505.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Increased PPARα mRNA levels on post-natal day 1. Alterations in genes regulated by PPARα, CAR, and PXR including cyp4a14, cyp2b10, cyp3a11, Pdk4, and Mel at various time-points.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational days 14 and 17 and post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28, 42, 63

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Tatum-Gibbs K, Das KP, Lau C. 2012. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):491-505.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Increased PPARγ mRNA levels on post-natal day 14 and decreased PPARβ protein levels on post-natal day 28. Increases in genes regulated by PPARα including cyp4a14, Acox1, and Pdk4 at various time-points.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational days 14 and 17 and post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28, 42, 63

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Tatum-Gibbs K, Das KP, Lau C. 2012. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):491-505.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased PPARα mRNA levels at post-natal days 1 and 14 followed by elevated levels on post-natal day 21. Decreased PPARα protein levels at post-natal day 14 but was elevated but post-natal day 28. Decreased PPARγ mRNA levels at post-natal day 1 followed by increases above control levels on post-natal days 21 and 28. Decreased levels of PPARβ mRNA levels on post-natal days 1, 14, 21 with decreased protein expression at post-natal day 14. Increased levels of several genes regulated by PPARα and CAR including cyp4a14, cyp2b10, Acox1, Pdk4, Mel, and Ehhadh at various time-points.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational days 14 and 17 and post-natal days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28

Reference [PubMed Link]
Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Tatum-Gibbs K, Das KP, Lau C. 2012. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):491-505.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOS)

Significant results at 2.0 mg/kg only: increased number of apoptotic cells (TUNEL+ cells) on post-natal days 0 and 21; increased lipid peroxidation (MDA levels); decreases in SOD and GSH activity; increased MPO activity on post-natal days 0 and 21. Alterations in the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Fas, Fas-L mRNA at 0.1 mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg on both post-natal day 0 and 21. Increased cytochrome c release at 2.0 mg/kg at both time-points. Increased activity of caspases 3, 8, and 9 on post-natal day 0 and 21 at 2.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1 or 2.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 0, 7, 14, 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Chen T, Zhang L, Yue JQ, Lv ZQ, Xia W, Wan YJ, Li YY, Xu SQ. 2012. Prenatal PFOS exposure induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in the lung of rat off-spring. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):538-545.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOS)

Decreased body weight beginning at post-natal day 0 persisting through the duration of the experiment at 2.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1 or 2.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 0, 7, 14, 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Chen T, Zhang L, Yue JQ, Lv ZQ, Xia W, Wan YJ, Li YY, Xu SQ. 2012. Prenatal PFOS exposure induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in the lung of rat off-spring. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):538-545.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased body weight of female mice on post-natal day 1 at 5.0 mg/kg extending through weaning. Increased body weight among females during post-natal week 20-29 at 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg which extended to week 40 in 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg exposure groups. Decreased abdominal white fat at 18 months of age in those exposed to 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg and increases in interscapular brown fat and relative brown fat in those exposed to 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.01, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0. 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from birth to 79 weeks

Reference [PubMed Link]
Hines EP, White SS, Stanko JP, Gibbs-Flournoy EA, Lau C, Fenton SE. 2009. Phenotypic dichotomy following developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in female CD-1 mice: Low doses induce elevated serum leptin and insulin, and overweight in mid-life. Mol Cell Endocrinol 304(1-2):97-105.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased relative kidney weight in females at 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: B6C3F1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 4 weeks and 8 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Keil DE, Mehlmann T, Butterworth L, Peden-Adams MM. 2008. Gestational exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate suppresses immune function in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Sci 103(1):77-85.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased relative liver weight in females at 0.1 mg/kg. Increased relative liver weight in males at 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: B6C3F1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: 4 weeks and 8 weeks of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Keil DE, Mehlmann T, Butterworth L, Peden-Adams MM. 2008. Gestational exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate suppresses immune function in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Sci 103(1):77-85.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased body weight at 3.0 and 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0, 20.0, 40.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from gestational day 18 through 60 weeks

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Narotsky MG, Rogers JM, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ. 2006. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid exposure during pregnancy in the mouse. Toxicol Sci 90(2):510-518.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increased relative liver weight on post-natal days 14 and 21 at 1.0 mg/kg, on post-natal days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 at 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from birth through 35 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Stanton ME, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci 74(2):382-392.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Increased relative liver weight in females on post-natal day 7, 14, 21, and 28 in 3.0 mg/kg exposure level; on post-natal days 7 and 14 in the 1.0 mg/kg exposure level; and on post-natal day 7 in the 0.3 mg/kg exposure level. Increased relative liver weights in males on post-natal days 7, 14, 21, and 42 at 3.0 mg/kg; on post-natal day 7 and 42 at 1.0 mg/kg; and on post-natal day 7 at 0.3 mg/kg.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 63, 84

Reference [PubMed Link]
Macon MB, Villanueva LR, Tatum-Gibbs K, Zehr RD, Strynar MJ, Stanko JP, White SS, Helfant L, Fenton SE. 2011. Prenatal perfluorooctanoic acid exposure in CD-1 mice: low-dose developmental effects and internal dosimetry. Toxicol Sci 122(1):134-145.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Increased liver weight

Subjects: C57BL/6 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 0.3 mg/kg in feed

Route of administration: delivered daily in feed

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 19 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 14)

Age of measurement: 5-8 weeks and 3-4 months of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Onishchenko N, Fischer C, Wan Ibrahim WN, Negri S, Spulber S, Cottica D, Ceccatelli S. 2011. Prenatal exposure to PFOS or PFOA alters motor function in mice in a sex-related manner. Neurotox Res 19(3):452-461.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased relative liver weight at 1.0 mg/kg

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18

Reference [PubMed Link]
Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Barbee BD, Richards JH, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA, Lau C. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: maternal and prenatal evaluations. Toxicol Sci 74(2):369-381.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased body weight at 1, 5, 10, and 20 days post-natal

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 1, 5, 10, 20

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Villanueva L, Zehr RD, Helfant L, Strynar MJ, Lindstrom AB, Thibodeaux JR, Wood C, Fenton SE. 2007. Gestational PFOA exposure of mice is associated with altered mammary gland development in dams and female offspring. Toxicol Sci 96(1):133-144.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Alterations 748, 919, and 1458 genes in the fetal liver at 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg respectively. These genes are involved in fatty acid catabolism, lipid transport, ketogenesis, glucose metabolism, lipoprotein metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, steroid metabolism ,bile acid biosynthesis, phospholipid metabolism, retinol metabolism, proteosome activation, and inflammation.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: gestational day 18

Reference [PubMed Link]
Rosen MB, Thibodeaux JR, Wood CR, Zehr RD, Schmid JE, Lau C. 2007. Gene expression profiling in the lung and liver of PFOA-exposed mouse fetuses. Toxicology 239(1-2):15-33.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased body weight at 5.0 mg/kg on post-natal day 42. Increased body weight on post-natal days 14, 17, and 22 in pups born to females gestationally exposed to 1.0 mg/kg PFOA .

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Stanko JP, Kato K, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Fenton SE. 2011. Gestational and chronic low-dose PFOA exposures and mammary gland growth and differentiation in three generations of CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect 119(8):1070-1076.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased body weights on post-natal day 1 in pups born to females that were exposed to 5.0 ppb PFOA in drinking water.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 ppb delivered post-natally in drinking water, or 1.0 mg/kg prenatally + 5.0 ppb post-natally in water

Route of administration: dissolved in drinking water and/ or dissolved in deionized water and delivered through gavage.

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – post-natal day 91 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Stanko JP, Kato K, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Fenton SE. 2011. Gestational and chronic low-dose PFOA exposures and mammary gland growth and differentiation in three generations of CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect 119(8):1070-1076.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decrease in the number of live fetuses at birth and post-natal survival in those exposed to 5.0 mg/kg PFOA

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Stanko JP, Kato K, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Fenton SE. 2011. Gestational and chronic low-dose PFOA exposures and mammary gland growth and differentiation in three generations of CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect 119(8):1070-1076.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Increased post-natal survival in those exposed to 5.0 ppb PFOA in drinking water

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 5.0 ppb delivered post-natally in drinking water, or 1.0 mg/kg prenatally + 5.0 ppb post-natally in water

Route of administration: dissolved in drinking water and/ or dissolved in deionized water and delivered through gavage.

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – post-natal day 91 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to beyond birth)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Stanko JP, Kato K, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Fenton SE. 2011. Gestational and chronic low-dose PFOA exposures and mammary gland growth and differentiation in three generations of CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect 119(8):1070-1076.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Increased relative liver weight on post-natal day 22 in those exposed to 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg PFOA and also on day 42 in those exposed to 5.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: birth through adulthood

Reference [PubMed Link]
White SS, Stanko JP, Kato K, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Fenton SE. 2011. Gestational and chronic low-dose PFOA exposures and mammary gland growth and differentiation in three generations of CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect 119(8):1070-1076.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Reduced survival rate from birth to weaning at 5 mg/kg with in utero and lactational exposure only.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 3.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from post-natal day 1 through 35 weeks

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wolf CJ, Fenton SE, Schmid JE, Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Bryant XA, Thibodeaux J, Das KP, White SS, Lau CS, Abbott BD. 2007. Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid in the CD-1 mouse after cross-foster and restricted gestational exposures. Toxicol Sci 95(2):462-473.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Increased relative liver weight in males and females with in utero only, lactational only, and in utero and lactational exposure

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 3.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from post-natal day 1 through 35 weeks

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wolf CJ, Fenton SE, Schmid JE, Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Bryant XA, Thibodeaux J, Das KP, White SS, Lau CS, Abbott BD. 2007. Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid in the CD-1 mouse after cross-foster and restricted gestational exposures. Toxicol Sci 95(2):462-473.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOA)

Decreased body weight in males and females after in utero and/or lactational exposure at 3.0 and 5.0 mg/kg at numerous measurement timepoints up to post-natal day 22. Males recovered from reduced weight and some achieved significantly elevated body weights at later timepoints.

Subjects: CD-1 mice

Chemical: PFCs (PFOA)

Low doses tested: 3.0 or 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in deionized water and delievered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 1 – gestational day 17 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 9)

Age of measurement: from post-natal day 1 through 35 weeks

Reference [PubMed Link]
Wolf CJ, Fenton SE, Schmid JE, Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Bryant XA, Thibodeaux J, Das KP, White SS, Lau CS, Abbott BD. 2007. Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid in the CD-1 mouse after cross-foster and restricted gestational exposures. Toxicol Sci 95(2):462-473.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOS)

Alterations in the hepatic expression of genes involved in fatty acid degradation, fatty acid synthesis, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, cholesterol biosynthesis, bile acid synthesis and transport, and thyroid hormone metabolism.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (PFOS)

Low doses tested: 3.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: gestational day 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Bjork JA, Lau C, Chang SC, Butenhoff JL, Wallace KB. 2008. Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced changes in fetal rat liver gene expression. Toxicology 251(1-3):8-20.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased body weight at 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: from birth through 35 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Stanton ME, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci 74(2):382-392.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Decreased post-natal survival rate at 2.0 mg/kg and higher. At 5.0 mg/kg, 95% of rats did not survive past the first day.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: from birth through 35 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Stanton ME, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci 74(2):382-392.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increased relative liver weight on post-natal days 2 and 9 at 1.0 mg/kg, on post-natal days 5, 9, 15, 21 at 2.0 mg/kg, and on post natal days 2 and 5 at 3.0 mg/kg

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: from birth through 35 days of age

Reference [PubMed Link]
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Stanton ME, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci 74(2):382-392.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (K+PFOS)

Increased percent of pups with enlarged right atria at 5.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (K+PFOS)

Low doses tested: 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg bw/d

Other doses tested: 10.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-20 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 20 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 14)

Age of measurement: gestational day 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Barbee BD, Richards JH, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA, Lau C. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: maternal and prenatal evaluations. Toxicol Sci 74(2):369-381.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOS)

Increased relative heart weight on post-natal day 21 at 2.0 mg/kg. Alterations in the expression of several genes involved in mitochondrial inner membrane proteins, ATP synthetase, ATPase, and function repair proteins at both 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.6, 2.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 0, 7, 14, 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Xia W, Wan Y, Li YY, Zeng H, Lv Z, Li G, Wei Z, Xu SQ. 2011. PFOS prenatal exposure induce mitochondrial injury and gene expression change in hearts of weaned SD rats. Toxicology 282(1-2):23-29.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOS)

Decreased body weight beginning on post-natal day 0 persisting through the duration of the experiment at 2.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.6, 2.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 0, 7, 14, 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Xia W, Wan Y, Li YY, Zeng H, Lv Z, Li G, Wei Z, Xu SQ. 2011. PFOS prenatal exposure induce mitochondrial injury and gene expression change in hearts of weaned SD rats. Toxicology 282(1-2):23-29.
Study Results Study Details References

Results for PFCs (PFOS)

Increased mortality before post-natal day 3 at 2.0 mg/kg.

Subjects: Sprague-Dawley rats

Chemical: PFCs (PFOS)

Low doses tested: 0.1, 0.6, 2.0 mg/kg bw/d

Route of administration: dissolved in Tween-80 and delivered through gavage

Exposure duration: gestational day 2 – gestational day 21 (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 1 to day 1 of week 16)

Age of measurement: post-natal days 0, 7, 14, 21

Reference [PubMed Link]
Xia W, Wan Y, Li YY, Zeng H, Lv Z, Li G, Wei Z, Xu SQ. 2011. PFOS prenatal exposure induce mitochondrial injury and gene expression change in hearts of weaned SD rats. Toxicology 282(1-2):23-29.