The Endocrine Disruption Exchange
From 2003 to 2019, TEDX produced and shared scientific evidence of endocrine disruption with nonprofit organizations, government agencies, and the public. Although we are no longer operating, our website resources will remain available.

Critical Windows of Development Timeline


References cited in the Critical Windows of Development timeline:

Normal Human Development

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Rajpert-De Meyts E, Jorgensen N, Graem N, Muller J, Cate RL, Skakkebaek NE. 1999. Expression of anti-Mullerian hormone during normal and pathological gonadal development: association with differentiation of Sertoli and granulosa cells. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 84(10):3836-3844.

Russo J, Russo IH. 2004. Development of the human breast. Maturitas 49(1):2-15.

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Satoh M. 1991. Histogenisis and organogenisis of the gonad in human embryos. J. Anat 177:85-107.

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Shepard TH. 1967. Onset of function in the human fetal thyroid: Biochemical and radioautographic studies from organ culture. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 27(7):945-958.

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Vaskivuo TE, Maentausta M, Torn S, Oduwole O, Lonnberg A, Herva R, Isomaa V, Tapanainen JS. 2005. Estrogen receptors and estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in human ovaries during fetal development. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 90(6):3752-3756.

vom Saal FS, Montano MM, Wang MH. 1992. Sexual differentiation in mammals. In: Colborn T, Clement C, eds. Chemically Induced Alterations in Sexual and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human ConnectionVolume XXI. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc. p 17-83. (Mehlman MA, ed. Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology; 21).

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Bisphenol A

Adriani W, Della Seta D, Dessi-Fulgheri F, Farabollini F, Laviola G. 2003. Altered profiles of spontaneous novelty seeking, impulsive behavior, and response to D-amphetamine in rats perinatally exposed to bisphenol A. Environ Health Perspect 111(4):395-401.

Aikawa H, Koyama S, Matsuda M, Nakahashi K, Akazome Y, Mori T. 2004. Relief effect of vitamin A on the decreased motility of sperm and the increased incidence of malformed sperm in mice exposed neonatally to bisphenol A. Cell & Tissue Research 315(1):119-124.

Akingbemi BT, Sottas CM, Koulova AI, Klinefelter GR, Hardy MP. 2004. Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis by the xenoestrogen bisphenol A is associated with reduced pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion and decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in rat Leydig cells. Endocrinology 145(2):592-603.

Aloisi AM, Della Seta D, Rendo C, Ceccarelli I, Scaramuzzino A, Farabollini F. 2002. Exposure to the estrogenic pollutant bisphenol A affects pain behavior induced by subcutaneous formalin injection in male and female rats. Brain Res 937(1-2):1-7.

Ayyanan A, Laribi O, Schuepbach-Mallepell S, Schrick C, Gutierrez M, Tanos T, Lefebvre G, Rougemont J, Yalcin-Ozuysal O, Brisken C. 2011. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A increases adult mammary gland progesterone response and cell number. Mol Endocrinol 25(11):1915-1923.

Bai Y, Chang F, Zhou R, Jin PP, Matsumoto H, Sokabe M, Chen L. 2011. Increase of anteroventral periventricular kisspeptin neurons and generation of E2-induced LH-surge system in male rats exposed perinatally to environmental dose of bisphenol-A. Endocrinology 152(4):1562-1571.

Bauer SM, Roy A, Emo J, Chapman TJ, Georas SN, Lawrence BP. 2012. The effects of maternal exposure to bisphenol A on allergic lung inflammation into adulthood. Toxicol Sci 130(1):82-93.

Betancourt AM, Mobley JA, Russo J, Lamartiniere CA. 2010. Proteomic analysis in mammary glands of rat offspring exposed in utero to bisphenol A. J Proteomics 73(6):1241-1253.

Brannick KE, Craig ZR, Himes AD, Peretz JR, Wang W, Flaws JA, Raetzman LT. 2012. Prenatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol a increases pituitary proliferation and gonadotroph number in female mice offspring at birth. Biol Reprod 87(4):82.

Chao HH, Zhang XF, Chen B, Pan B, Zhang LJ, Li L, Sun XF, Shi QH, Shen W. 2012. Bisphenol A exposure modifies methylation of imprinted genes in mouse oocytes via the estrogen receptor signaling pathway. Histochem Cell Biol 137(2):249-259.

Dessi-Fulgheri F, Porrini S, Farabollini F. 2002. Effects of perinatal exposure to bisphenol A on play behavior of female and male juvenile rats. Environ Health Perspect 110 (suppl 3):403-407.

Doshi T, Mehta SS, Dighe V, Balasinor N, Vanage G. 2011. Hypermethylation of estrogen receptor promoter region in adult testis of rats exposed neonatally to bisphenol A. Toxicology 289(2-3):74-82.

Durando M, Kass L, Piva J, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM, Luque E, Munoz-de-Toro M. 2007. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure induces preneoplastic lesions in the mammary gland in Wistar rats. Environ Health Perspect 115(1):80-86.

Facciolo RM, Alo R, Madeo M, Canonaco M, Dessi-Fulgheri F. 2002. Early cerebral activities of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A appear to act via the somatostatin receptor subtype sst2. Environ Health Perspect 110 (suppl 3):397-402.

Farabollini F, Porrini S, Della Seta D, Bianchi F, Dessi-Fulgheri F. 2002. Effects of perinatal exposure to bisphenol A on sociosexual behavior of female and male rats. Environ Health Perspect 110 (suppl 3):409-413.

Farabollini F, Porrini S, Dessi-Fulgherit F. 1999. Perinatal exposure to the estrogenic pollutant bisphenol A affects behavior in male and female rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior 64(4):687-694.

Ferguson SA, Law CD, Abshire JS. 2012. Developmental treatment with bisphenol A causes few alterations on measures of postweaning activity and learning. Neurotoxicol Teratol 34(6):598-606.

Gioiosa L, Fissore E, Ghirardelli G, Parmigiani S, Palanza P. 2007. Developmental exposure to low-dose estrogenic endocrine disruptors alters sex differences in exploration and emotional responses in mice. Hormones & Behavior 52(3):307-16.

Goncalves CR, Cunha RW, Barros DM, Martinez PE. 2010. Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A on behavior and memory in rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 30(2):195-201.

Gupta C. 2000. Reproductive malformation of the male offspring following maternal exposure to estrogenic chemicals. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology & Medicine 224(2):61-68.

Ho SM, Tang WY, De Frausto JB, Prins GS. 2006. Developmental exposure to estradiol and bisphenol A increases susceptibility to prostate carcinogenesis and epigenetically regulates phosphodiesterase type 4 variant 4. Cancer Res 66(11):5624-5632.

Honma S, Suzuki A, Buchanan DL, Katsu Y, Watanabe H, Iguchi T. 2002. Low dose effect of in utero exposure to bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on female mouse reproduction. Reprod Toxicol 16(2):117-122.

Howdeshell KL, vom Saal FS. 2000. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A: Interaction with endogenous estradiol during pregnancy in mice. Am Zool 40(3):429-437.

Ishido M, Morita M, Oka S, Masuo Y. 2005. Alteration of gene expression of G protein-coupled receptors in endocrine disruptors-caused hyperactive rats. Regul Pept 126(1-2):145-153.

Jang YJ, Park HR, Kim TH, Yang WJ, Lee JJ, Choi SY, Oh SB, Lee E, Park JH, Kim HP, Kim HS, Lee J. 2012. High dose bisphenol A impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in female mice across generations. Toxicology 296(1-3):73-82.

Jones BA, Watson NV. 2012. Perinatal BPA exposure demasculinizes males in measures of affect but has no effect on water maze learning in adulthood. Horm Behav 61(4):605-610.

Kang ER, Iqbal K, Tran DA, Rivas GE, Singh P, Pfeifer GP, Szabo PE. 2011. Effects of endocrine disruptors on imprinted gene expression in the mouse embryo. Epigenetics 6(7):937-950.

Kass L, Altamirano GA, Bosquiazzo VL, Luque EH, Munoz-de-Toro M. 2012. Perinatal exposure to xenoestrogens impairs mammary gland differentiation and modifies milk composition in Wistar rats. Reprod Toxicol 33(3):390-400.

Kawai K, Murakami S, Senba E, Yamanaka T, Fujiwara Y, Arimura C, Nozaki T, Takii M, Kubo C. 2007. Changes in estrogen receptors alpha and beta expression in the brain of mice exposed prenatally to bisphenol A. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology 47(2):166-170.

Kawai K, Nozaki T, Nishikata H, Takii M, Kubo C. 2003. Aggressive behavior and serum testosterone concentration during the maturation process of male mice: The effects of fetal exposure to bisphenol A. Environ Health Perspect 111(2):175-178.

Kobayashi K, Ohtani K, Kubota H, Miyagawa M. 2010. Dietary exposure to low doses of bisphenol A: effects on reproduction and development in two generations of C57BL/6J mice. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 50(3):159-170.

Komada M, Asai Y, Morii M, Matsuki M, Sato M, Nagao T. 2012. Maternal bisphenol A oral dosing relates to the acceleration of neurogenesis in the developing neocortex of mouse fetuses. Toxicology 295(1-3):31-38.

Kubo K, Arai O, Omura M, Watanabe R, Ogata R, Aou S. 2003. Low dose effects of bisphenol A on sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior in rats. Neurosci Res 45(3):345-356.

Losa-Ward SM, Todd KL, McCaffrey KA, Tsutsui K, Patisaul HB. 2012. Disrupted organization of RFamide pathways in the hypothalamus is associated with advanced puberty in female rats neonatally exposed to bisphenol A. Biol Reprod 87(2):28.

Markey CM, Coombs MA, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2003. Mammalian development in a changing environment: exposure to endocrine disruptors reveals the developmental plasticity of steroid-hormone target organs. Evolution & Development 5(1):67-75.

Markey CM, Luque EH, Munoz de Toro M, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2001. In utero exposure to bisphenol A alters the development and tissue organization of the mouse mammary gland. Biol Reprod 65(4):1215-1223.

Markey CM, Wadia PR, Rubin BS, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2005. Long-term effects of fetal exposure to low doses of the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A in the female mouse genital tract. Biol Reprod 72(6):1344-1351.

Masuo Y, Morita M, Oka S, Ishido M. 2004. Motor hyperactivity caused by a deficit in dopaminergic neurons and the effects of endocrine disruptors: A study inspired by the physiological roles of PACAP in the brain. Regul Pept 123(1-3):225-234.

Matsuda S, Matsuzawa D, Ishii D, Tomizawa H, Sutoh C, Nakazawa K, Amano K, Sajiki J, Shimizu E. 2012. Effects of perinatal exposure to low dose of bisphenol A on anxiety like behavior and dopamine metabolites in brain. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 39(2):273-279.

Matsuda S, Saika S, Amano K, Shimizu E, Sajiki J. 2010. Changes in brain monoamine levels in neonatal rats exposed to bisphenol A at low doses. Chemosphere 78(7):894-906.

Miyagawa K, Narita M, Narita M, Akama H, Suzuki T. 2007. Memory impairment associated with a dysfunction of the hippocampal cholinergic system induced by prenatal and neonatal exposures to bisphenol-A. Neurosci Lett 418(3):236-241.

Miyawaki J, Sakayama K, Kato H, Yamamoto H, Masuno H. 2007. Perinatal and postnatal exposure to bisphenol a increases adipose tissue mass and serum cholesterol level in mice. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 14(5):245-252.

Moral R, Wang R, Russo IH, Lamartiniere CA, Pereira J, Russo J. 2008 Jan. Effect of prenatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A on mammary gland morphology and gene expression signature. J Endocrinol 196(1):101-12.

Munoz-de-Toro M, Markey C, Wadia PR, Luque EH, Rubin BS, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2005. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol-A alters peripubertal mammary gland development in mice. Endocrinology 146(9):4138-4147.

Murray TJ, Maffini MV, Ucci AA, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2007. Induction of mammary gland ductal hyperplasias and carcinoma in situ following fetal bisphenol A exposure. Reprod Toxicol 23(3):383-390.

Nagel SC, vom Saal FS, Thayer KA, Dhar MG, Boechler M, Welshons WV. 1997. Relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A and octylphenol. Environ Health Perspect 105(1):70-76.

Nah WH, Park MJ, Gye MC. 2011. Effects of early prepubertal exposure to bisphenol A on the onset of puberty, ovarian weights, and estrous cycle in female mice. Clin Exp Reprod Med 38(2):75-81.

Nakamura K, Itoh K, Dai H, Han L, Wang X, Kato S, Sugimoto T, Fushiki S. 2012. Prenatal and lactational exposure to low-doses of bisphenol A alters adult mice behavior. Brain Dev 34(1):57-63.

Nakamura K, Itoh K, Sugimoto T, Fushiki S. 2007. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A affects adult murine neocortical structure. Neurosci Lett 420(2):100-105.

Nakamura K, Itoh K, Yaoi T, Fujiwara Y, Sugimoto T, Fushiki S. 2006. Murine neocortical histogenesis is perturbed by prenatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A. J Neurosci Res 84(6):1197-1205.

Nanjappa MK, Simon L, Akingbemi BT. 2012. The industrial chemical bisphenol A (BPA) interferes with proliferative activity and development of steroidogenic capacity in rat Leydig cells. Biol Reprod 86(5):135, 1-12.

Negishi T, Kawasaki K, Suzaki S, Maeda H, Ishii Y, Kyuwa S, Kuroda Y, Yoshikawa Y. 2004. Behavioral alterations in response to fear-provoking stimuli and tranylcypromine induced by perinatal exposure to bisphenol A and nonylphenol in male rats. Environ Health Perspect 112:1159-1164.

Newbold RR, Jefferson WN, Padilla-Banks E. 2007. Long-term adverse effects of neonatal exposure to bisphenol A on the murine female reproductive tract. Reprod Toxicol 24(2):253-258.

Newbold RR, Jefferson WN, Padilla-Banks E. 2009. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol a at environmentally relevant doses adversely affects the murine female reproductive tract later in life. Environ Health Perspect 117(6):879-885.

Nikaido Y, Yoshizawa K, Danbara N, Tsujita-Kyutoku M, Yuri T, Uehara N, Tsubura A. 2004. Effects of maternal xenoestrogen exposure on development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female CD-1 mouse offspring. Reprod Toxicol 18(6):803-811.

Nishizawa H, Manabe N, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Miyamoto H. 2003. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on expression of RARalpha and RXRalpha mRNAs in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 49(6):539-545.

Nishizawa H, Morita M, Sugimoto M, Imanishi S, Manabe N. 2005. Effects of in utero exposure to bisphenol A on mRNA expression of arylhydrocarbon and retinoid receptors in murine embryos. Journal of Reproduction & Development 51(3):315-324.

Okada A, Kai O. 2008 Mar. Effects of estradiol-17beta and bisphenol A administered chronically to mice throughout pregnancy and lactation on the male pups’ reproductive system. Asian Journal of Androl 10(2):271-6.

Palanza P, Gioiosa L, vom Saal FS, Parmigiani S. 2008 Oct. Effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A on brain and behavior in mice. Environ Res 108(2):150-7.

Palanza PL, Howdeshell KL, Parmigiani S, vom Saal FS. 2002. Exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A during fetal life or in adulthood alters maternal behavior in mice. Environ Health Perspect 110 (suppl 3):415-422.

Poimenova A, Markaki E, Rahiotis C, Kitraki E. 2010 May 19. Corticosterone-regulated actions in the rat brain are affected by perinatal exposure to low dose of bisphenol A. Neuroscience 167(3):741-9.

Ramos JG, Varayoud J, Kass L, Rodriguez H, Costabel L, Munoz-De-Toro M, Luque EH. 2003. Bisphenol A induces both transient and permanent histofunctional alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in prenatally exposed male rats. Endocrinology 144(7):3206-3215.

Ramos JG, Varayoud J, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM, Munoz de Toro M, Luque EH. 2001. Prenatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A alters the periductal stroma and glandular cell function in the rat ventral prostate. Biol Reprod 65(4):1271-1277.

Rubin BS, Lenkowski JR, Schaeberle CM, Vandenberg LN, Ronsheim PM, Soto AM. 2006. Evidence of altered brain sexual differentiation in mice exposed perinatally to low, environmentally relevant levels of bisphenol A. Endocrinology 147(8):3681-3691.

Rubin BS, Murray MK, Damassa DA, King JC, Soto AM. 2001. Perinatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A affects body weight, patterns of estrous cyclicity, and plasma LH levels. Environ Health Perspect 109(7):675-680.

Ryan BC, Vandenbergh JG. 2006. Developmental exposure to environmental estrogens alters anxiety and spatial memory in female mice. Hormones & Behavior 50(1):85-93.

Salian S, Doshi T, Vanage G. 2009. Perinatal exposure of rats to Bisphenol A affects the fertility of male offspring. Life Sci 85(21-22):742-752.

Sato K, Matsuki N, Ohno Y, Nakazawa K. 2002. Effects of 17beta-estradiol and xenoestrogens on the neuronal survival in an organotypic hippocampal culture. Neuroendocrinology 76(4):223-234.

Schonfelder G, Friedrich K, Paul M, Chahoud I. 2004. Developmental effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A on the uterus of rat offspring. Neoplasia 6(5):584-594.

Signorile PG, Spugnini EP, Citro G, Viceconte R, Vincenzi B, Baldi F, Baldi A. 2012. Endocrine disruptors in utero cause ovarian damages linked to endometriosis. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 4:1724-1730.

Signorile PG, Spugnini EP, Mita L, Mellone P, D’Avino A, Bianco M, Diano N, Caputo L, Rea F, Viceconte R, Portaccio M, Viggiano E, Citro G, Pierantoni R, Sica V, Vincenzi B, Mita DG, Baldi F, Baldi A. 2010. Pre-natal exposure of mice to bisphenol A elicits an endometriosis-like phenotype in female offspring. Gen Comp Endocrinol 168(3):318-325.

Smith CC, Taylor HS. 2007. Xenoestrogen exposure imprints expression of genes (Hoxa10) required for normal uterine development. FASEB J 21(1):239-246.

Somm E, Schwitzgebel VM, Toulotte A, Cederroth CR, Combescure C, Nef S, Aubert ML, Huppi PS. 2009. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol a alters early adipogenesis in the rat. Environ Health Perspect 117(10):1549-1555.

Susiarjo M, Hassold TJ, Freeman E, Hunt PA. 2007. Bisphenol A exposure in utero disrupts early oogenesis in the mouse. PLoS Genetics 3(1):63-70.

Takai Y, Tsutsumi O, Ikezuki Y, Hiroi H, Osuga Y, Momoeda M, Yano T, Taketani Y. 2000. Estrogen receptor-mediated effects of a xenoestrogen, bisphenol A, on preimplantation mouse embryos. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 270(3):918-921.

Takai Y, Tsutsumi O, Ikezuki Y, Kamei Y, Osuga Y, Yano T, Taketan Y. 2001. Preimplantation exposure to bisphenol A advances postnatal development. Reprod Toxicol 15(1):71-74.

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Johnson FO, Chambers JE, Nail CA, Givaruangsawat S, Carr RL. 2009. Developmental Chlorpyrifos and Methyl Parathion Exposure Alters Radial-Arm Maze Performance in Juvenile and Adult Rats. Toxicol Sci 109(1):132-142.

Lassiter TL, Brimijoin S. 2008. Rats gain excess weight after developmental exposure to the organophosphorothionate pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Neurotoxicology & Teratology 30(2):125-130.

Levin ED, Addy N, Baruah A, Elias A, Christopher NC, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2002. Prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure in rats causes persistent behavioral alterations. Neurotoxicology & Teratology 24(6):733-741.

Levin ED, Addy N, Nakajima A, Christopher NC, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2001. Persistent behavioral consequences of neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure in rats. Developmental Brain Research 130(1):83-89.

Mansour SA, Mossa AH. 2010. Adverse effects of lactational exposure to chlorpyrifos in suckling rats. Human & Experimental Toxicology 29(2):77-92.

Maurissen JPJ, Hoberman AM, Garman RH, Hanley TR. 2000. Lack of selective developmental neurotoxicity in rat pups from dams treated by gavage with chlorpyrifos. Toxicol Sci 57(2):250-263.

Meyer A, Seidler FJ, Aldridge JE, Slotkin TA. 2005. Developmental exposure to terbutaline alters cell signaling in mature rat brain regions and augments the effects of subsequent neonatal exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 203(2):154-166.

Meyer A, Seidler FJ, Aldridge JE, Tate CA, Cousins MM, Slotkin TA. 2004. Critical periods for chlorpyrifos-induced developmental neurotoxicity: alterations in adenylyl cyclase signaling in adult rat brain regions after gestational or neonatal exposure. Environ Health Perspect 112(3):295-301.

Meyer A, Seidler FJ, Cousins MM, Slotkin TA. 2003. Developmental neurotoxicity elicited by gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos: When is adenylyl cyclase a target? Environ Health Perspect 111(16):1871-1876.

Meyer A, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2004. Developmental effects of chlorpyrifos extend beyond neurotoxicity: critical periods for immediate and delayed-onset effects on cardiac and hepatic cell signaling. Environ Health Perspect 112(2):170-178.

Navarro HA, Basta PV, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2001. Neonatal chlorpyrifos administration elicits deficits in immune function in adulthood: a neural effect? Developmental Brain Research 130(2):249-252.

Qiao D, Seidler FJ, Abreu-Villaca Y, Tate CA, Cousins MM, Slotkin TA. 2004. Chlorpyrifos exposure during neurulation: cholinergic synaptic dysfunction and cellular alterations in brain regions at adolescence and adulthood. Developmental Brain Research 148(1):43-52.

Qiao D, Seidler FJ, Padilla S, Slotkin TA. 2002. Developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos: What is the vulnerable period? Environ Health Perspect 110(11):1097-1103.

Qiao D, Seidler FJ, Tate CA, Cousins MM, Slotkin TA. 2003. Fetal chlorpyrifos exposure: Adverse effects on brain cell development and cholinergic biomarkers emerge postnatally and continue into adolescence and adulthood. Environ Health Perspect 111(4):536-544.

Raines KW, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2001. Alterations in serotonin transporter expression in brain regions of rats exposed neonatally to chlorpyrifos. Developmental Brain Research 130(1):65-72.

Rhodes MC, Seidler FJ, Qiao D, Tate CA, Cousins MM, Slotkin TA. 2004. Does pharmacotherapy for preterm labor sensitize the developing brain to environmental neurotoxicants? Cellular and synaptic effects of sequential exposure to terbutaline and chlorpyrifos in neonatal rats. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 195(2):203-217.

Ricceri L, Markina N, Valanzano A, Fortuna S, Cometa MF, Meneguz A, Calamandrei G. 2003. Developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos alters reactivity to environmental and social cues in adolescent mice. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 191(3):189-201.

Ricceri L, Venerosi A, Capone F, Cometa MF, Lorenzini P, Fortuna S, Calamandrei G. 2006. Developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphorous pesticides: fetal and neonatal exposure to chlorpyrifos alters sex-specific behaviors at adulthood in mice. Toxicol Sci 93(1):105-113.

Richardson JR, Chambers JE. 2004. Neurochemical effects of repeated gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos in developing rats. Toxicol Sci 77(1):83-90.

Richardson JR, Chambers JE. 2005. Effects of repeated oral postnatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on cholinergic neurochemistry in developing rats. Toxicol Sci 84(2):352-359.

Roy TS, Andrews JE, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 1998. Chlorpyrifos elicits mitotic abnormalities and apoptosis in neuroepithelium of cultured rat embryos. Teratology 58(2):62-68.

Roy TS, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2004. Morphologic effects of subtoxic neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure in developing rat brain: regionally selective alterations in neurons and glia. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 148(2):197-206.

Roy TS, Sharma V, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2005. Quantitative morphological assessment reveals neuronal and glial deficits in hippocampus after a brief subtoxic exposure to chlorpyrifos in neonatal rats. Developmental Brain Research 155(1):71-80.

Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2011. Developmental neurotoxicity targeting hepatic and cardiac sympathetic innervation: effects of organophosphates are distinct from those of glucocorticoids. Brain Res Bull 85(3-4):225-230.

Slotkin TA, Brown KK, Seidler FJ. 2005. Developmental exposure of rats to chlorpyrifos elicits sex-selective hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in adulthood. Environ Health Perspect 113(10):1291-1294.

Slotkin TA, Cousins MM, Tate CA, Seidler FJ. 2001. Persistent cholinergic presynaptic deficits after neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure. Brain Res 902(2):229-243.

Slotkin TA, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2006. Comparative developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphate insecticides: effects on brain development are separable from systemic toxicity. Environ Health Perspect 114(5):746-751.

Slotkin TA, Oliver CA, Seidler FJ. 2005. Critical periods for the role of oxidative stress in the developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos and terbutaline, alone or in combination. Developmental Brain Research 157(2):172-180.

Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ, Fumagalli F. 2007. Exposure to organophosphates reduces the expression of neurotrophic factors in neonatal rat brain regions: Similarities and differences in the effects of chlorpyrifos and diazinon on the fibroblast growth factor superfamily. Environ Health Perspect 115(6):909-916.

Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ, Fumagalli F. 2008. Targeting of neurotrophic factors, their receptors, and signaling pathways in the developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphates in vivo and in vitro. Brain Res Bull 76(4):424-38.

Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ. 2005. The alterations in CNS serotonergic mechanisms caused by neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure are permanent. Developmental Brain Research 158(1-2):115-119.

Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ. 2007. Comparative developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphates in vivo: Transcriptional responses of pathways for brain cell development, cell signaling, cytotoxicity and neurotransmitter systems. Brain Res Bull 72(4-6):232-274.

Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ. 2007. Developmental exposure to terbutaline and chlorpyrifos, separately or sequentially, elicits presynaptic serotonergic hyperactivity in juvenile and adolescent rats. Brain Res Bull 73(4-6):301-309.

Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ. 2007. Prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure elicits presynaptic serotonergic and dopaminergic hyperactivity at adolescence: critical periods for regional and sex-selective effects. Reprod Toxicol 23(3):421-427.

Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ. 2012. Developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphates targets cell cycle and apoptosis, revealed by transcriptional profiles in vivo and in vitro. Neurotoxicol Teratol 34(2):232-241.

Slotkin TA, Southard MC, Adam SJ, Cousins MM, Seidler FJ. 2004. 7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors targeted by cholinergic developmental neurotoxicants: Nicotine and chlorpyrifos. Brain Res Bull 64(3):227-235.

Slotkin TA, Tate CA, Cousins MM, Seidler FJ. 2002. Functional alterations in CNS catecholamine systems in adolescence and adulthood after neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure. Developmental Brain Research 133(2):163-173.

Slotkin TA, Tate CA, Cousins MM, Seidler FJ. 2005. Imbalances emerge in cardiac autonomic cell signaling after neonatal exposure to terbutaline or chlorpyrifos, alone or in combination. Developmental Brain Research 160(2):219-230.

Song X, Seidler FJ, Saleh JL, Zhang J, Padilla S, Slotkin TA. 1997. Cellular mechanisms for developmental toxicity of chlorpyrifos: Targeting the adenylyl cyclase signaling cascade. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 145(1):158-174.

Turgeman G, Pinkas A, Slotkin TA, Tfilin M, Langford R, Yanai J. 2011. Reversal of chlorpyrifos neurobehavioral teratogenicity in mice by allographic transplantation of adult subventricular zone-derived neural stem cells. J Neurosci Res 89(8):1185-1193.

Venerosi A, Cutuli D, Colonnello V, Cardona D, Ricceri L, Calamandrei G. 2008. Neonatal exposure to chlorpyrifos affects maternal responses and maternal aggression of female mice in adulthood. Neurotoxicology & Teratology 30(6):468-474.

Whitney KD, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 1995. Developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos: Cellular mechanisms. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 134(1):53-62.

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PFAS (poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances)

Abbott BD, Wolf CJ, Schmid JE, Das KP, Zehr RD, Helfant L, Nakayama S, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ, Lau C. 2007. Perfluorooctanoic acid induced developmental toxicity in the mouse is dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci 98(2):571-581.

Abbott BD, Wood CR, Watkins AM, Tatum-Gibbs K, Das KP, Lau C. 2012. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):491-505.

Bjork JA, Lau C, Chang SC, Butenhoff JL, Wallace KB. 2008. Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced changes in fetal rat liver gene expression. Toxicology 251(1-3):8-20.

Butenhoff JL, Ehresman DJ, Chang SC, Parker GA, Stump DG. 2009. Gestational and lactational exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (K+PFOS) in rats: developmental neurotoxicity. Reprod Toxicol 27(3-4):319-330.

Chang SC, Ehresman DJ, Bjork JA, Wallace KB, Parker GA, Stump DG, Butenhoff JL. 2009. Gestational and lactational exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (K+PFOS) in rats: toxicokinetics, thyroid hormone status, and related gene expression. Reprod Toxicol 27(3-4):387-399.

Chen T, Zhang L, Yue JQ, Lv ZQ, Xia W, Wan YJ, Li YY, Xu SQ. 2012. Prenatal PFOS exposure induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in the lung of rat off-spring. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):538-545.

Dixon D, Reed CE, Moore AB, Gibbs-Flournoy EA, Hines EP, Wallace EA, Stanko JP, Lu Y, Jefferson WN, Newbold RR, Fenton SE. 2012. Histopathologic changes in the uterus, cervix and vagina of immature CD-1 mice exposed to low doses of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in a uterotrophic assay. Reprod Toxicol 33(4):506-512.

Hines EP, White SS, Stanko JP, Gibbs-Flournoy EA, Lau C, Fenton SE. 2009. Phenotypic dichotomy following developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in female CD-1 mice: Low doses induce elevated serum leptin and insulin, and overweight in mid-life. Mol Cell Endocrinol 304(1-2):97-105.

Johansson N, Fredriksson A, Eriksson P. 2008. Neonatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) causes neurobehavioural defects in adult mice. Neurotoxicology 29(1):160-169.

Keil DE, Mehlmann T, Butterworth L, Peden-Adams MM. 2008. Gestational exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate suppresses immune function in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Sci 103(1):77-85.

Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Narotsky MG, Rogers JM, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ. 2006. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid exposure during pregnancy in the mouse. Toxicol Sci 90(2):510-518.

Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Stanton ME, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci 74(2):382-392.

Liu X, Liu W, Jin Y, Yu W, Wang F, Liu L. 2010. Effect of gestational and lactational exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate on calcium-dependent signaling molecules gene expression in rats’ hippocampus. Arch Toxicol 84(1):71-79.

Luebker DJ, Case MT, York RG, Moore JA, Hansen KJ, Butenhoff JL. 2005. Two-generation reproduction and cross-foster studies of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats. Toxicology 215(1-2):126-148.

Macon MB, Villanueva LR, Tatum-Gibbs K, Zehr RD, Strynar MJ, Stanko JP, White SS, Helfant L, Fenton SE. 2011. Prenatal perfluorooctanoic acid exposure in CD-1 mice: low-dose developmental effects and internal dosimetry. Toxicol Sci 122(1):134-145.

Onishchenko N, Fischer C, Wan Ibrahim WN, Negri S, Spulber S, Cottica D, Ceccatelli S. 2011. Prenatal exposure to PFOS or PFOA alters motor function in mice in a sex-related manner. Neurotox Res 19(3):452-461.

Rosen MB, Thibodeaux JR, Wood CR, Zehr RD, Schmid JE, Lau C. 2007. Gene expression profiling in the lung and liver of PFOA-exposed mouse fetuses. Toxicology 239(1-2):15-33.

Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, Barbee BD, Richards JH, Butenhoff JL, Stevenson LA, Lau C. 2003. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: maternal and prenatal evaluations. Toxicol Sci 74(2):369-381.

Wang F, Liu W, Jin Y, Dai J, Yu W, Liu X, Liu L. 2010. Transcriptional effects of prenatal and neonatal exposure to PFOS in developing rat brain. Environ Sci Technol 44(5):1847-1853.

Wang F, Liu W, Jin Y, Dai J, Zhao H, Xie Q, Liu X, Yu W, Ma J. 2011. Interaction of PFOS and BDE-47 co-exposure on thyroid hormone levels and TH-related gene and protein expression in developing rat brains. Toxicol Sci 121(2):279-291.

White SS, Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Villanueva L, Zehr RD, Helfant L, Strynar MJ, Lindstrom AB, Thibodeaux JR, Wood C, Fenton SE. 2007. Gestational PFOA exposure of mice is associated with altered mammary gland development in dams and female offspring. Toxicol Sci 96(1):133-144.

White SS, Kato K, Jia LT, Basden BJ, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Stanko JP, Wolf CJ, Abbott BD, Fenton SE. 2009. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on mouse mammary gland development and differentiation resulting from cross-foster and restricted gestational exposures. Reprod Toxicol 27(3-4):289-298.

White SS, Stanko JP, Kato K, Calafat AM, Hines EP, Fenton SE. 2011. Gestational and chronic low-dose PFOA exposures and mammary gland growth and differentiation in three generations of CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect 119(8):1070-1076.

Wolf CJ, Fenton SE, Schmid JE, Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Bryant XA, Thibodeaux J, Das KP, White SS, Lau CS, Abbott BD. 2007. Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid in the CD-1 mouse after cross-foster and restricted gestational exposures. Toxicol Sci 95(2):462-473.

Xia W, Wan Y, Li YY, Zeng H, Lv Z, Li G, Wei Z, Xu SQ. 2011. PFOS prenatal exposure induce mitochondrial injury and gene expression change in hearts of weaned SD rats. Toxicology 282(1-2):23-29.

Yahia D, El-Nasser MA, Abedel-Latif M, Tsukuba C, Yoshida M, Sato I, Tsuda S. 2010. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure to pregnant mice on reproduction. J Toxicol Sci 35(4):527-533.

Ye L, Zhao B, Yuan K, Chu Y, Li C, Zhao C, Lian QQ, Ge RS. 2012. Gene expression profiling in fetal rat lung during gestational perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure. Toxicol Lett 209(3):270-276.

Yu WG, Liu W, Jin YH, Liu XH, Wang FQ, Liu L, Nakayama SF. 2009. Prenatal and postnatal impact of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on rat development: a cross-foster study on chemical burden and thyroid hormone system. Environ Sci Technol 43(21):8416-8422.

Zeng HC, Li YY, Zhang L, Wang YJ, Chen J, Xia W, Lin Y, Wei J, Lv ZQ, Li M, Xu SQ. 2011. Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate in rat resulted in long-lasting changes of expression of synapsins and synaptophysin. Synapse 65(3):225-233.

Zeng HC, Zhang L, Li YY, Wang YJ, Xia W, Lin Y, Wei J, Xu SQ. 2011. Inflammation-like glial response in rat brain induced by prenatal PFOS exposure. Neurotoxicology 32(1):130-139.

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